SOCY 305 Notes (3/29/16 - 3/31/16)
SOCY 305 Notes (3/29/16 - 3/31/16) SOCY 305 001
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SOCY 305 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Childbearing Across Social Classes Microlevel View: o Children's lives are shaped broadly o And at an interpersonal level Parenting (between parents and children) Earlier in semester: o 1. Ethnic Family --> interpretative lens for identifying "ideal family" o 2. Parenting demands among mothers (and fathers with young children) "Intensive parenting" Child care demands Today: o Look closely at U.S. cultural logics of parenting that extend to childcare of all ages o How they vary by social class o Set kids on different paths of life o Put this model of parenting into comparative perspective by looking at modes of parenting in other countries Earlier research: o Parents of different social class Spend time differently Use vocabulary differently Enroll their children in more extracurriculars Unequal Childhoods o Social class also shapes philosophies and approaches to parenting o Children of different social classes are being raised differently more so now than before o Class differences in parenting are cultural logics (Lareau 2003) Discussion on Lareau (2003) Reading o What is cultural logic? o Crystallization of different parenting behaviors shaped by parents' backgrounds o 2 kinds of cultural logic: 1. Concerted Cultivation (Alexander Williams) 2. Naturalistic Growth ( Wendy Driver) 1. Alexander Williams' parents' approach to parenting: o Black, middle-class o Parents --> professionals ($200,000 / year) o Extracurricular activities => talents and skills developed (concerted cultivation) o Used complex vocabulary Language used as a teaching tool Reasoning, negotiation (opportunity for Alexander to explain himself) o Assertive with adults o Involvement and advocacy in child's school 2. Wendy Driver o Working class family; white girl o Single mother with a partner o Money is tight, economic hardship o Fewer extracurriculars --> providing a safe activity for her child Religious training Fun o Language more direct (commands or directives) Less intellectual conversations (no reasoning) o Around adults, she was taught to be more deferential (not assertive, no demands) o Wendy's mother lacked on independent understanding of school and allowed school to make decisions on her child's behalf (NOT interventionist) Middle class children reared in a way that values ambition Working class children reared --> value natural growth, unstructured time, and kin interactions o Because working class parents know that life will get hard soon enough, so they want their kids to enjoy their childhood while they can o Often lack knowledge of professional jargon, have a different view of the link between home and school, and are distrustful of authority figures Do middle class parents care more about their kids' future than working class parents? o No, parents have same hopes for kids' futures; however, their expectations and circumstances vary It has NOT always been this way o More educated/advantaged parents since the 1980s Seeing downward mobility Popular culture terms: o Helicopter parenting: hovering parents over their kids Alternative philosophy --> kids empowered when they learn to take risks on their own Guest Lectures on Family and Family Change: Interracial Families History o Slavery era o Post civil war – marriage between Blacks and Whites illegal Segregation (separate but equal) o 1967 – Loving vs. Virginia case 11 year old and 17 year old have a baby and they get married => arrested (broke the law) and sentenced to one year in jail or 25 years exile from Virginia Sharp increase in people who marry interracially Factors that deter/favor intermarriage: o History racial relations o Laws o Geographic proximity o Neighborhood/school/work segregation o Education (more educated, more likely to intermarry) o Age are first marriage o First marriage or remarriage o General public and family attitudes o Perceived risk of marital dissolution/racism/hardships Higher risk of divorce o Other factors --> religion; cultural distance Why did intermarriage rates increase? o No laws prohibiting intermarriage o Immigration --> population ethnically diverse o Higher at first marriage, independent living, and higher education levels o More diverse families of all types o More accepting attitudes --> millennials o Divorce --> 50% Why is it still a rare event? o History or racial oppression o Belief that races are different o Intermarriage prohibited o Covert and over racism still present o Geographic segregation o Homophily Black/White marriages => black respondents more accepting (80%) than whites (64%) Out-marriage to Caucasian Americans more acceptable/deniable than to Asians, hispanics, and blacks Overall, attitudes more accepting today than in past Most intermarriage in the West Southeast --> least likely to see intermarriage between blacks and whites Gender based differences o Asian women intermarry a lot MORE than Asian men o Black women intermarry a lot LESS than Black men o Males/females no difference between then gender when it comes to intermarriage among whites and hispanics Higher risk of divorce when marrying outside your racial group o White husband and Black wife have lower risk of divorce than Asian husband and Asian wife Multiracial Children --> Concerns: o Racial identity o Invisibility vs. Being too visible o Effects of divorce on children o Discrimination and bullying Multiracial Children Research o Choosing identities reflect social context: Blacks/whites/biracial/multiracial/mixed/human o Racial identity change over time o Little differences – multiracial Benefits of intermarriage o Group/Community Level Opens up discussion on race and ethnicity Upward social mobility Erasing social dichotomy You can't group intermarriage into only black and white Bridges between racially distinct families o Children Children more tolerant, objective, and nonjudgmental Multilingual children – higher school performance Future trends? o We expect to see a reduction in intermarriage between Asians and other races/ethnicities
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