RUSS 280 Notes (3/29/16)
RUSS 280 Notes (3/29/16) Russ 280
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Russ 280 at University of South Carolina taught by Prof. Kalb in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Intro to Russian Civilization in Russian at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Civil War, NEP, Ilf and Petrov, Zoshchenko, Stalinism Soviet film o Changing o 1918 --> soviet government nationalizes o Theaters under state control o Most immigrated and took their equipment with them o Everything was a complete DISASTER! o 1923 --> 90 functioning theaters (things got better) o Film used for education and propaganda o 1924 --> government monopoly on films made in Russia o Import movies including American ones and edit them to make them sad o Filmmakers contacted by Russian government and "asked" (forced) to make films for them o Bolsheviks used film as instrument of propaganda => Lenin o Mid-1920s --> golden age of film o Great filmmakers => Sergei Einstein Sergei Einstein, 1898-1948 o 1925 --> "Battleship Potemkin" --> influential propaganda film (famous scene => Odessa steps scene => czarist soldiers massacre lots of people on the Odessa steps) o 1928 --> "October" --> storming of winter palace scene Civil War and Establishment of Soviet Union o 1918-1920 o Whites (anti-Bolsheviks) vs. Reds (Bolsheviks) o Whites defeated and Bolsheviks in control o War communism --> things horrible now, but it's going to be phenomenally fabulous o Take over factories and excess food produced by peasants => doesn't motivate farmers to produce crops, lots of resentment o Huge famine, drought, millions are dying From War Communism to NEP o Lenin stops war communism and establishes NEP Capitalism opportunity to earn money and sell your food o Businesses thriving, but some people see it as a betrayal of socialism o Stereotypes of NEP man (bad, Western, piggish) Literary Front o New government o Movies propagandizing o Want literary propaganda o Out/amongst illiterate people emerge the brilliant proletariat writers, but that doesn’t happen o Use old generation and teach others how to write o People like Blok are teaching the alphabet Power Struggles in Soviet Literature o Different Groups: RAPP (Russian Association of Proletarian Writers) Working class should be the only ones allowed to write and they HATED the "fellow travelers" o 1925 resolution --> tolerant of all groups o 1932 central committee dissolves all groups and you have to be a part of one main group if you want to write Fellow Travelers and Satire o Ilf and Petrov, Zoshchenko satirists Reading: Ilf and Petrov o "The Twelve Chairs" 1928 o Everyone's heard of it o Vorobyaninov --> from upperclass and he learns that the family jewels are hidden in one of the twelve chairs from the dining room. He joins with Ostap Bender to find the chair and they find the chair; however, the jewels have already been found and are gone o Satire of characters and all they meet o Collect money to "help orphans," but keep money for themselves Zoshchenko, "Crime and Punishment" 1933 o Most popular writer in 1920s o Volunteer to fight with Red army o Satirist o Captures confusion of 1920s, return of capitalism o Satire of new rulings and regime and its rhetoric o In this play, people are alarmed of being arrested and main character think's he's being arrested, but instead he's a witness for another person's trial Rise of Stalin o Born in 1879; from Republic of Georgia o Becomes a Bolshevik o Him, Lenin, and Trotsky are main trio o Trotsky did not like Stalin and warned against him ruling o Stalin gained power after Lenin died in 1924 o People upset that Lenin died, so they mummified him o "Lenin is not dead" o You can go see his body in a glass case... o Power struggles: Left: Trotsky --> without world revolution, socialism in Russia doomed Right: Bukharin --> continue compromising with NEP Center: Stalin --> socialism --> socialism in 1 country Major Policies: Collectivization of Agriculture o Brutal disaster for peasants o Began 1928 o Determined attempt to put agricultural production (all farms and farmers) into huge, state-owned collective farms o 5 million rural households disappeared o People would seize crops, stock and herd peasants into collective farms o Peasants didn't want this so they slaughtered all the animals and towns disappeared Major Policies: Industrialization o 5-year-plan o Strike against capitalism o Began 1928 o Industrialized o Huge cost, however, all money is put into industrialization o Huge results! o Arrested millions of innocent people => forced labor used on huge construction projects and canals Major Policies: Purges o Began 1934 after assassination of Leningrad part boss, named Kirov (Stalin killed him) o Stalin pretends that he's miserable and arrests people he thinks that killed Kirov (even though Stalin was the killer) o Purge, cleansing, and spreads to military to government/civil service to general population o Innocent people arrested, tortured, sent to camps doing hard labor and then killed => Gulag camps After Stalin died, many of these people are rehabilitated People brainwashed to think that if you were arrested, that you were indeed guilty (even though everyone was innocent) Most who got arrested --> "the thinkers," writers, composers, musicians, and artists o If you didn't immigrate, then you'd be "purged" --> arrested and killed
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