Week 1 Lab notes
Week 1 Lab notes 116
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamie Yang on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 116 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Grisham in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Thursday, Week 1 Schematic of the Meninges and Their Relationship to the Brain --- Meninges and Superficial Cerebral Veins a. The brain has three nonneural coverings i. Dura Mater 1. “Tough mother” a. The small white patch covering the caudal area of the brain in lab; talked about this when Professor Grisham asked everyone, “Who was able to tear this part?” and he was surprised that anyone was able to; I was able to tear it 2. This is the outermost layer of the brain 3. It is used to encase the central nervous system: the brain and spinal cord 4. Contains sensory nerves *** ii. Arachnoid 1. This was the larger, more tricky, clear part we had to peel off; it was covering the area caudal to the optic chiasm all the way until the spinal cord end; Claudia and a classmate helped me take this off 2. It has a spidery appearance 3. If your brain was bloody, which mine was not, you could see it much better 4. There are blood vessels in the arachnoid layer 5. If the arachnoid layer is damaged, this affects our sensory nerves, which is what leads to migraines 6. Contains sensory nerves*** iii. Pia Mater 1. “Faithful mother” 2. Faithfully clings to the brain, only a couple cells thick b. Corpus callosum i. Connects the left and right cortex/cortices ii. The cortex does not include the amygdala or the basal ganglia iii. Not all animals have a corpus callosum c. Meningitis, a brain disease – when the meninges is inflamed i. Inflammation 1. A protective response to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process and to initiate tissue repair 2. Signs of acute inflammation are pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function ii. Bacterial Meningitis 1. Most dangerous because it can kill you 2. Treatable iii. Viral Meningitis 1. Not treatable, but does not kill you d. The brain does not have any sensory nerves e. CSF is located between the arachnoid and the pia mater The Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland --- Regulation of Anterior Pituitary Hormone Secretion f. Pituitary Gland i. Not neural ii. Pituitary means “hypothesis” iii. Hypothisectomy is the removal of the pituitary (hypothesis) gland iv. The pituitary gland is not part of the brain, only the stalk is connected to the brain and the pituitary gland v. Runs all other endocrine glans vi. Run by the hypothalamus vii. There are neural and vascular connections between the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus g. Hypothalamus i. Sends projections to the posterior pituitary ii. Runs the pituitary gland h. Infundibulum i. This is the stalk of the pituitary ii. When we cut off the dura mater, the pituitary stalk comes off too iii. Under the stalk is the median eminence i. Median eminence i. Releases the hormones ii. Located under the stalk when dissecting? Cranial Nerves: Schematic of Distributions of Sensory, Motor, and Autonomic Fibers j. Study the names and the roman numeral numbers of the cranial nerves k. Study the function of the cranial nerves, know both the general and specific functions l. Doctors give us simple instructions like, “Look right, look left” to test for brain stem damage i. This instruction in particular would test to see if Abducens cranial nerve XI, spinal accessory, is damaged, since it is in charge of side to side eye movement m. Tip: Just because Dr. Grisham cannot put a pin in the brain during a lab practical, does not mean that he will not ask about it i. ex. we can’t see the cranial nerve I olfactory nerve since it is normally cut off when brains are prepared for dissection, but we can still be tested on what used to be there n. Cranial nerve I: Olfactory nerve i. Sensory nerve ii. in charge of sending nerve impulses about odors to the olfactory bulb, which travel to specifically the mitral cells, leading to the pyriform cortex, entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and septal nuclei o. Cranial nerve II: Optic nerve i. Sensory nerve ii. The optic nerves derive from ganglion cells about the visual fields; they synapse onto the optic chiasm, which synapse onto the lateral geniculate nucleus, which then synapse onto area 17 (i.e. V1 or striate cortex) p. Cranial nerve III: Oculometer i. Motor nerve ii. In charge all eye muscles except these those below (i.e. looking down) iii. In charge of ciliary, iris, sphincter iv. Innervates intrinsic/essential/fundamental muscles 1. Lens accommodations 2. Pupillary adjustments q. Cranial nerve IV: Trochlear i. Motor nerve ii. This is the muscle that drops your eyes down – THAT IS ALL iii. Ex. when you go to the doctor and she tells you, “Look down” – she is testing to see if your trochlear cranial nerve IV is working properly r. Cranial nerve V: Trigeminal i. Both sensory and motor ii. This is the biggest nerve iii. Motor to muscles and chewing iv. Sensory to all of the face and oral cavity v. NO taste sensation vi. Sensory to nose but NO smell sensation vii. Innervates the superior oblique viii. Trigeminal nerves come from the pons area s. Cranial nerve VI: Abducens i. Motor nerve ii. In charge of side to side eye movement iii. Innervates lateral rectus t. Cranial nerve VII: Facial nerve i. Both sensory and motor nerve ii. Muscles of facial expression iii. Stapedius iv. Sensory to taste, the front end of the tongue v. Motor to all facial expressions vi. Bell’s Palsy 1. When this facial nerve does not work, your face has no muscle on one side and appears emotionless 2. This is the picture of the two girls who look alike, one is imitating the other u. Cranial nerve VIII: Vestibulocochlear i. “Coch” = hearing ii. “Vest” balance iii. This nerve tells us where our head is in space v. Cranial nerve IX: Glossopharyngeal i. Both ii. “Glosso” = tongue iii. “Pharynx” = throat iv. Taste for back of tongue v. Motor for elevating the throat during swallowing and talking vi. *** Read more on this w. Cranial nerve X: Vagus i. Both motor and sensory nerve ii. In charge of sympathetic responses iii. Innervates the viscera, in control of the guts x. Cranial nerve XI: Spinal accessory i. Motor nerve ii. Motor to the muscles of the neck and shoulders y. Cranial nerve XII: Hypoglossal i. “Hypo” = under ii. “Glossi” = tongue iii. Runs under the tongue and innervates it z. Mnemonic device for the names of the cranial nerves i. Oh olfactory ii. oh optic iii. oh – oculus iv. they trochlear v. traveled trigeminal vi. and abducens vii. found facial viii. Voldemort – vestibulocochlear ix. guarding – glossopharyngeal x. very vagus xi. secret – spinal accessory xii. horcruxes – hypoglossal aa. Mnemonic device for knowing whether the cranial nerve is sensory, motor, or both i. Some ii. say iii. money iv. matters v. but vi. my vii. brother viii. says ix. big x. brains xi. matters xii. more ab. James Lange Theory of Emotion i. states that we feel emotion based on physical sensation ii. we are great at knowing when we are aroused, but we are bad at figuring out why we are aroused Arterial Distribution to the Brain: Basal View ac. Blood enters the brain via the vertebral arties, which fuse and form the basilar artery, which splits into the posterior cerebral artery, which supplies the cortex of inferior and ventral temporal lobe and occipital lobe ad. Blood also enters via the internal carotid artery, which splits into the skull to supply the brain i. The posterior communicating artery connects the posterior cerebral and internal carotids ae. The posterior cerebral artery splits in the brain and forms the middle cerebral artery which supplies the lateral cortex and the basal ganglia; travels through the Sylvian Fissure af. The anterior cerebral artery drop? in medial longitudinal fissure to supply the cortex on the sagittal surface ag. The anterior commissure artery connects the two anterior cerebral arteries ah. **** terminology i. anything with cerebral means that it is supplying the brain with blood ii. anything with communicating is generally a bridge Schematic of the Circle of Willis ai. Anterior cerebral artery: supplies most of the sagittal cortex, not occipital lobe though; also supplies some of nm? aj. Medial cerebral artery supplies the lateral cortex ak. Posterior cerebral artery supplies the cortex on the inferior temporal lobe, the medial temporal lobe, the occipital lobe – double check Blood clot game! 2. What would be affected if you had a blockage at the left middle cerebral artery? a. Broca and Wernicke areas are located in the left hemisphere b. If only Broca’s area is affected, the patient would have trouble speaking, but could still understand when spoken to i. The Broca’s area is dorsal to the Sylvian Fissure c. If only Wernicke’s area is affected, the patient would not be able to comprehend when spoken too but can articulate in a sufficiently grammatical way that has no actual meaning d. If the blood clot affects the postcentral gyrus, somatosensory in the body would be dead e. If the area temporal to the Sylvian Fissure? is affected, hearing would be affected i. Question: Which ear would be affected? ii. Answer: Both because both ears are crossed and then uncrossed iii. We would only lose some decibels though 3. What is worse: blockage at the left middle cerebral artery or blockage at the left internal carotid artery? a. It is worse to block the internal carotid artery because there would still be a functioning internal carotid artery on the other side in addition to the two vertebral arteries to receive blood. Blood goes through the middle cerebral artery; therefore, if we stop the supply here, one side of the brain would be cut off. Extra notes from Claudia’s tour of the brain 4. There is only one basilar artery and one anterior communicating artery. 5. The Sylvian Fissure is the same thing as the lateral tissue. Surface Anatomy of the Forebrain: Lateral View a. Gyrus: a bump on the cerebral cortex b. Sulcus: a valley c. Fissure: a valley deeper than a sulcus d. Medial temporal lobe i. Contains the pyriform cortex, where you can find the amygdala ii. Entorhinal – where you can find the hippocampus e. Prefrontal lobe i. Area that contains short term memory processing 1. If you lesion this in a monkey, you can show them how you put a treat in a box, cover the box with a barrier, and immediately lift the barrier, but the monkey will still now know where to look because his short term memory is affected ii. Area that is responsible for your personality f. Frontal lobe i. Precentral gyrus 1. Contains the cortical spinal tract, which has cell bodies important for motor functions a. ex. writing, playing tennis, etc. 2. The cortical spinal tract also has axons that terminate in the spinal cord 3. It has a motor homunculus, a little man that represents the body in a proportion between the function and the body part size 4. The central sulcus divides the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe g. Parietal lobe i. Somatosensory homunculus, which is proportional to the motor homunculus ii. Parietal Occipital Locus separates the parietal lobe and the occipital lobe h. Occipital lobe i. contains the calcarine fissure that exists inside area 17 ii. Potential question: In area 17, where does the cortex on either side of the fissure get its projections from? 1. The lateral geniculate nucleus Broadman scheme i. There are difference numbers for each different brain area j. #41 is important for auditory cortex k. Area 17 is for visual cortex 6. External Features II a. Telencephalon i. cortex ii. corpus callosum 1. connects the cortices of the left and right hemispheres iii. rhinencephalon 1. rhin means nose 2. encephalon means brain 3. together, the two are describing the sense of smell 4. rhinal fissure is the landmark for the area 5. olfactory bulb 6. lateral olfactory tract is a bundle of axons 7. pyriform cortex/area a. hippocampal/entorhinal b. Diencephalon i. Hypothalamus 1. mammillary bodies a. important for memory b. if destroyed, leads to Korsakoff’s syndrome c. Korsakoff’s syndrome i. neurons of the mammillary bodies die ii. due to alcohol syndrome normally iii. severe anterograde amnesia iv. like Dory in Finding Nemo d. Functions of the hypothalamus i. four F’s ii. Fear 1. Activate this part in cats and they can fear a mouse iii. Fight 1. Activate this part in cats and they go crazy trying to attack mice iv. Food 1. Activate this part in mice and they can keep eating forever because they never feel full v. Sex 1. Lesion this part of the hypothalamus, and wipes out sex drive in males 7. Mesencephalon a. cerebral peduncles i. the cell bodies in the motor cortex have axons of the corticospinal tract b. superior and inferior colliculus i. can see this on the dorsal view of the brain if you lift the cerebellum ii. superior colliculus 1. part of the second visual pathway iii. inferior colliculus 1. part of the auditory pathway 8. External Features a. Metencephalon i. trapezoid bodies 1. axons in auditory system going left to right, and right to left ii. cerebellum, pons, and middle cerebellar peduncle are interrelated iii. cerebellum 1. its job is to monitor motor commands coming down, to know where the body should be in space 2. proprioception: to sense where the body is actually in space 3. the cerebellum tunes up commands if there is a mismatch between where the body is and should be 9. Afferent Pathways in the Cerebellum – REVIEW IN OFFICE HOURS a. The metencephalon pathway, where it synapses in the pontine nuclei b. Once the axons reach the medulla oblongata, they are referred to as pyramids, which are just axons from the corticospinal tract c. At the end, they decussate, meaning they cross the midline d. If the left brain is damaged, the right side of the body is paralyzed e. The metencephalon pathway also leads to the cerebellum where axons synapse there until the body knows where it should be in space 10. Extra notes from Dr. Grisham during the lab a. The bump in the cerebellum is called the follum b. The vermis is the big bump c. At the area of the medulla oblongata, the fatter ends is where the axons decussate and cross the midline
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