Week 12 Notes PSCH 315
Week 12 Notes PSCH 315 PSCH 315
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSCH 315 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Karina Reyes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Women and Gender in Psychlogy at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Week 12 Notes These notes cover Ch. 15 Notes will be on every other page, except for the 1t Ch. 15 Women and Mental Health Issues Women and Depression o The earlier puberty happens, the more at risk they are for depression and anxiety They are teased more and given more attention for their bodies Younger girls are less able to handle this increased attention Their depression/anxiety isn’t always at the clinical level Girls may change their activities/activity level in response to puberty Girls are 2x self-conscious about peer harassment than boys o Puberty for boys has either neutral or positive effects Violence and Poverty o Feminization of poverty: women are more likely to be in poverty Due to large number of women as single parents, not receiving child support payments o There’s a positive correlation between poverty and depression This is because of all the other stressful things that come along with poverty Alcoholism and Drug Abuse o Heavy drinking = 6+ drinks Mortality rates 4x higher for women o Alcohol intake positively correlated with breast cancer o Long term alcohol abuse shrinks the brain with negative effects o Women judged more negatively for being visibly intoxicated o Men experience more peer pressure to drink o Bioavailability and sensitivity Alcohol is more bioavailable to women – they can drink the same amount as men but get more drunk; men metabolize it faster Women are more sensitive to alcohol, but there is individual variation o Genetic factors for alcoholism Having an alcoholic parent creates more genetic vulnerability to alcoholism – more for males than females Not absolute – correlation, not causality – there are other factors o Lots of negative life events are a strong predictor of future alcoholism People use substances to self-medicate o Depression/anxiety related to substance abuse (correlation not causation) Ironic that alcohol is a depressant o Drug use rates Both genders equally use marijuana Cocaine and hallucinogens used more by males Psychotherapeutic (prescription) drugs used more by females Cigarettes used equally Eating Disorders (EDs) o More common in adolescent girls and adult women o Women do dietary restraint – cut back on what they eat o 25% binge eat o People who experience childhood sexual abuse or were teased for body are more likely to develop an ED o Anorexia nervosa can be fatal – 95% female, and young/adolescent women Anorexics are under their normal weight, have extreme fear of gaining weight, have distorted body perception, have lighter periods due to lack of nutrition (amenorrhea), may exercise excessively o Bulimia Binge and purge Purging through vomiting, laxatives, or excessive exercise Many more females than males Regularly binge (extreme eating) to the point of feeling out of control Goal is to lose weight Meet criteria by bingeing and purging at least twice a week for 3 months, feeling out of control PAGE LEFT BLANK Causes not very clear There are biological causes Hormonal causes – levels too low because brain is not getting the energy/nutrients it needs and the hypothalamus is unable to function properly Perfectionists more likely to be bulimic (correlation) o Some bulimic women are also OCD o More likely to come from families that hold them to high standards o There are standardized diagnostic criteria o Treatment Very difficult to treat – people often in denial and resistant to treatment Mainly treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) Behavior therapy only focuses on reinforcement/punishment CBT looks deeper at the thoughts behind the behavior Examine cognitive distortions – extremely skinny people think that they’re “fat” Replace maladaptive behavior by correcting cognitive distortions Not sexist Family therapy also used because family is an important factor Exposure therapy Group therapy is also effective Have to consider anxiety that accompanies EDs Purging can relieve their anxiety Can be treated with antidepressants because they help with OCD behaviors and anxiety EDs cannot only be treated with drugs Best results from combination of therapy and drugs Not entirely curable – people learn to manage it but they will almost always have those desires Prevention is crucial – targeting at-risk groups (adolescents, athletes) PAGE LEFT BLANK If people already have EDs, education alone will not eliminate it Some people support each other’s EDs Feminist ideas for intervention: Try to change societal behavior practices Practices in our society pressure women to live a certain way Women depicted in media are not representative of the average woman – unrealistic body images that make women feel bad if they can’t obtain White women are held up as the ideal Normative discontent: People focus on their imperfections in comparison to others; it is normal for women to be discontent with their bodies Women preoccupied with their physical attractiveness to men There’s pressure to be thin
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