Mar 29, Roman Empire (several dynasties)
Mar 29, Roman Empire (several dynasties) ARTH 1305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
We stood with the Colosseum, which was completed by son, constructed above the artificial lake of Nero, could accommodate 50,000 people, divided into cavea, arena, and basement. The interior of the building is made with white marble and the exterior with tufa and concrete reberted with travertine. 1. Coin Used as a source for the Colosseum 2. Image of exterior decoration of Colosseum Roman structure (cheap materials) with Greek decoration (ionic, doric, and Corinthian orders present on the structure) Piers are the supports which are not cylindrical, there are 76 in the 2 and 3 level and also the basement of the Flavian Amphitheater Cobels are the little structures on the top of the Colosseum made to support a roof that used to be there (now gone) Archs used to be decorated with statues inside each arch Colosseum has a total of 76 entrances, each entrance used to be numbered The basement has multiple floors, ramps, cages for all kinds of animals Colosseum had a underground passageway Basement was covered with sand One primary source tells us some events required the Colosseum to be filled with water and they would put ships and all the navy battling to one another Velarium is the track of rood made of wood 3. Arch of Titus Titus was the one who completed the Colosseum, greatest achievement of his life because later, he died of illness He built this arch remembering his victory of the war his father Neros started (war is represented with disaster and total chaos) It has an inscription in Latin saying its dedication to Titus reign, which was quite unstable Composite volutes are volutes that have multiple influence (ionic and Corinthian elements in this case) Coffers are the little squares beneath the arch decorating the inside of the roof At the sides, it has two reliefs which tell a story; on the right, Titus is drawn by 4 horses, this is called a quadriga, he is coming back after defeating the Jews accompanied by the god Honos (god of Honor) and god Virtus (god of military valor). At the left, there is a relief of the destruction of Jerusalem, the Romans are carrying the menorah which is the symbol of the Jews 4. NervanAntonine Flavians didn’t last so long, NervanAntonine dynasty permitted Rome to extend and this was their greatest moment geographically. Nerva was a Senate man, he replaced Domesian (the last of the pervious dynasty who got assassinated because he, like Nero, held also a tyranny BUST OF TRAJAN, Trajan was the first emperor who wasn’t Italian, he was from Spain. Conquered ancient Rumania and he was also an incredible builder 5. Circus Maximus Place of the army, they held their persecutions here It is gone now because at the Middle Ages people used the materials for churches This was added to the Imperial Fora by constructing Forum of Trajan (largest of all) Nerva’s forum is next to Augustus 6. Column of Trajan The statue of bronze represents victory over Ancient Asia Column tells a military story in spiral way Built by Apollodorus of Damascus, he was a military engineer The column now has the statue of Saint Peter because it was added during Renaissance 150 pieces of frieze Painted originally in bright colors Depicts complete military campaign 7. Portrait bust of Hadrian Hadrian was also from Spain First emperor delighted by Greeks, he wore a beard in honor of the civilization He was helenofile because of his love for Greece Traveled all his reign, consolidated Rome, didn’t like war He was gay, constructed temples for his significant other He was an architect, he killed Apollodorus because he asked for the criticism of his designs and Apollodorus told him the corrections after saying several times it was perfect 8. Pantheon Dedicated to all gods Standing still today Corinthian influence because of the porch and wide intercolumniations Converted to a church during Middle Ages First builder of the pantheon was Marcus Agrippa but Hadrian built it again and left the original inscription saying Marcus had built that temple (when in fact Hadrian built it) Columns’ shafts are single monoliths, they come from Egypt (transported from Egypt to Alexandria to Rome) More than 50 types of stones at this temple Took 7 years to build it When cut by half, it fits a sphere (symbol of divinity) Interior survives intact Yellow marbles from Libya and gray marbles from Egypt, and so on for the other colors of the floor Pumice is the light weight volcanic stone which makes the structure lighter Oculus is eye in latin, made for the message that when light comes in throughout the day, there are gods moving across heavens Polychrome are the marbles reberted in other colors to make the decoration better 9. Model of Insula Romans lived in ordinary departments, lowest classes got the upper rooms meanwhile the elite got the second floor (first floor is always for market) Insula refers to an island There were no private bathrooms nor water; all the departments shared a central kitchen This is a model from Ostria, a port of Rome Still existing today (the only one) 10.Antonine Emperors They are recognized because they learned from the past and they adopted benevolent and talented kids, Antonius Pius adopted Marcus and Lucius, until Marcus led his natural biological son Commodus the reign Lucius died first, this is why Marcus gets the reign All successors wore beards 11.Apotheosis This is a support of column that has disappear Depicts emperor Antonius Pius when the goes to heaven with his dead wife (he never remarried again after death of wife) Aion means eternity, it is the man who is on the left side of the emperor Campus martius is the place where Emperors where cremated, Martius refers to Mars. It was a complete neighborhood for the military drills Roma is the man who is at the right side of the emperor We see the old greek idealized style of divinity (high classical style) 12.Decursio There is no concern for proportion Every death of an emperor was celebrated with this kind of sculpture We see a frontal approach and also a profile approach, there is a cycle of the horses going into one direction First attempt of abstraction (turning point of the Crisis and Decline) 13.Equestrian Eques= refers to horse in Latin Marcus Aurelius was extending his arm in sense of mercy (he was fighting against the Germans), he forgave the lives of enemies with this sign This statue was believed by the Catholic Church to be the first emperor of Rome who led the spread of Catholicism and was even put at the Vatican Entrance 14.Severan Emperors This is the beginning of Crisis and Decline They came from Libya, this is the first dynasty who is not European Caracalia murdered his brother Geta This is a period of chaos, crisis, continuous assassinations (only the first emperor had a natural death) 15.Portrait This is the only imperial portrait Face of Geta is missing because of Damnatio memoriae, which is the worst punishment of a man (to pretend his memory didn’t exist), documents, coins, portraits, and everything depicting this person is burned. Geta wasn’t the first in receiving this punishment