BIOL 1030 Notes from 3/22, 3/24, 3/29, and 3/31
BIOL 1030 Notes from 3/22, 3/24, 3/29, and 3/31 BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cox on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
3/22 Kingdom Animalia No cell walls Multicellular Oviparous – egg layers Ovoviviparous – live birth by way of internal hatching egg (hold eggs until after hatching) Viviparous – live bearing Heterotrophic – ingestion digestion egestion Monophyletic – contain only animal-like multicellular organisms Sexual/asexual reproduction – gametic meiosis (diploid organisms form gametes by meiosis) Movement—locomotory structures (arms, legs, flippers, wings, etc) o However some are sessile Diverse! (around 40 phyla) 99% invertebrate Evolutionary trends: o Level of organization – how developed multicellularity is depends on which animal you’re talking abot Cellular – within one animal cells are adapted for specialized purposes and don’t function as a unit Tissue – cells working together and function as a unit Organ – tissues combined and functioning together for processes (respiration, excretion, reproduction, etc.) Organ system o Symmetry Initially, animals lacked symmetry Related to how locomotion developed in animals Many of the oldest animals are asymmetrical Radial symmetry developed to allow organisms to meet the environment equally on all sides; well suited for sessile organisms or organisms with weak locomotion capacilities Bilateral symmetry developed; associated with condition of having a head and a tail Cephalization – development of a head Led to capability of developing sensory structures Secondary radial symmetry – radial animals evolved from bilateral ancestors who evolved from radial ancestors o Far more complex than the original radial ancestor o Body cavity Acoelomate – lack a body cavity altogether Pseudocoelomate Polyphyletic Eucoelomate – true coelomate Between body wall, gut and other interal organs there is a fluid filled space lined with a membrane that holds things in place and allows for greater complexity o Embryological development Life starts as a zygote Zygote grows through mitosis – goes to 2 cells stage – go to 4 cell stage – eventually a huge mass of cells making a solid ball of cells called a morula As divisions continue in the morula there is shape shifting resulting in a shaped organism with a hollow center (blastocoel) called a blastula Blastula continues to grow into a pacman shape with a single layer of cells surrounding a hollow center (blastocoel) called a gastrula Hole in the blastula called blastospore – when blastospore is visible the cells becomes a gastrula (gastrulation) Through further gastrulation two layers of cells develop (germ layers) (2 germ layers = diploblastic) Ectoderm on outside – develop into outer …. Wall of animal Endoderm inside – develop into lining of gut of animal (looks like a neck pillow) more gastrulation results in a third layer of cells that fills the space between the ectoderm and the endoderm = 3 germ layers (triploblastic) ectoderm endoderm mesoderm – develop into muscles gastrulation continues = break through to other side = gut with two openings = complete gut protostome – blastopore becomes mouth (“first mouth”) deuterostome – second opening becomes the mouth; blastopore becomes the anus o segmentation = metamerism tagmosis – body regions o other: feeding structures lophophore larval stages trochophore Kingdom Animalia = Metazoa (as opposed to protozoa) o Parazoa – sponges (Porifera) o Eumetazoe – animals with true tissures Radiata (superphylum) – radial symmetry, diploblastic Bilateria – bilateral symmetry, triploblastic, Protostomia – blastophore becomes the mouth o Lophotrochozoa – named for feeding structure o Ecdysozoa – named for molting Deuterostomia – (including phylum Chordata) o Basal metazoa? – a current controversy Phylum Porifera or phylum Ctenophora? Ctenophora-sister (DNA evidence) vs Porifera-sister (Morphological evidence) hypotheses An unsettled debate Phylum Porifera o Sponges o Cellular level of organization o Lack of symmetry o Sessile adults o Matrix – mesohyl (with cells and skeleton imbedded) o Cell types: Choanocytes: collar cells (collar of microvilli and single flagellum) Water is pulled through side of the collar for feeding Filter feeding and water flow for respiratory gases, excretion, and gamete dispersal Archaeocytes: have pseudopods and can change in form Can move around through the mesohyl from choanocaytes to other cells Food transport from choanocytes to other cells Secrete mesohyl Secrete the skeleton Porocytes – holes in sponges (cells in shape of tube with hole that runs through them) Water passes from outside of sponge to inside Pinacocytes – flat cells that cover surfaces inside and outside of sponges Skeleton: o Organic fibers Collagen – protein fibers; produced by some archaeocytes; strands woven together make spongin Spongin – unique to sponges o Inorganic spicules Calcareous Silicious 3 body types o aquiferous systems : trace water flow through structures o water enters through the ostia – now in spongocoel – travels back out through osculum o ascon (simple body type); very small asconoid single osculum choanocytes line spongocoel porocytes form ostia (where water enters the cell) o sycon syconoid single osculum choanocytes line flagellated chambers ostia lead to incurrent canals prosopyles o leucon leuconoid multiple oscula no spongocoel incurrent and excurrent canals prosopyles and apopyles 3/24 Oryctolagus cuniculus – European rabbit o O. o Leporidae o Lagomorpha o Mammalia o Chordata o Animalia o Eukarya o A vigilant herbivore o How to draw a bunny face Pinna (-ae) – ears Vibrissae – whiskers Philtrum – slit in the lip 3 classes of sponges: o Calcarea ascon, sicon, and leucon body types (only class with all three) spicules are calcareous all are marine all are small o Hexactinellida – glass sponges Hexactines – 6 rayed spicules made of silicon dioxide (silecious) All are deep water marine Cells and spicules become fused after formation = connected cells Fused layer of cells = syncytium Fused layers of spicules Sycon/leucon intermediate Shrimp (spongicola) living in sponge o Demospongiae 80% of diversity of sponges all are leucon all of the large sponges are in this group marine + fresh H2O silicious spicules and/or sponging variety of shapes bath sponges – sponging only boring spone – Cliona celata archaeoytes etch calcareous shells bioerosion fresh water sponges gemmules – dormancy and dispersal, 3/28 Phylum Ctenophora Basal metazoan? A new idea Basal to the animal kingdom Biradial symmetry Diploblastic Ctenes and colloblasts Many transparent and bioluminescent Ctenes used in locomotion and feeding Colloblasts o Adhesive cells on tentacles o Used in prey capture 200+ species 2 classes (with and without tentacles) Not strong swimmers – carried by tides Most are planktonic Phylum Radiata – phylum Cnidaria (and Ctenophora?) Radial symmetry Diploblastic 2 developmental body forms: polyp and medusa o mouth o hypostome or manubrium o tentacles o body column or bell o attached or unattached – polyp attached, medusa not attached o pedal disc o polyp capable of asexual; sexual only for medusa o thick or thin mesoglea epidermis, mesoglea, gastrodermis, gastrovascular cavity o epidermis develops from the ectoderm o mesoglea holds the gastrodermis and epidermis together o simple gut – only has one opening that is simultaneously the mouth and the anus o medusa has a much thicker layer of mesoglea cnidocil – stinging cells; only cnidarians can grow these cells Phylum Cnidaria Class Hydrozoa hydra, chlorohydra, and others polyp only or polyp and medusa medusa is predominant stage Colonial polyps with polymorphism o Portuguese man-o-war o Blue button o By-the-wind sailor Man-O-War o Axial polyp (pneumatophore) – hold all the other polyps together o Gastrozooids – feeding polyp o Gonozooids – o Dactylozooids – stinging polyps o Craspedacusta sowerbyi – freshwater jellyfish Obelia o Colony: colonial polyp stage involves asexual reproduction; medusa buds break free, mature, and complete sexual reproduction o Gastrozooids o Gonozoids: capable of budding o Coenosarc: connects gastrozooids and gonozooids Hydromedusae has a velum: ring-like structure extending inward from the periphery of the bell; contractile; holds the bell’s shape; aids in locomotion (medusa of class hydrozoa) Class Scyphozoa – true jellyfish Scyphozoan life cycle: (medusa predominant stage) o Egg and sperm fuse and form zygote o Planula larval stage; develops into polyp (scyphistoma) o Scyphistoma – polyp for feeding; early polyp stage o Strobila – chain of longitudinally produced buds o Ephyra – young medusa o Medusa Upside down jellyfish – has symbiotic algae living within the manubrium = upside down in shallow waters so light can get is Thimble jelly Stalked jelly Class Cubozoa – box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri – sea wasp Class Anthozoa – anemones and corals Polyp only (no medusa) Large polyps with septa dividing gvc Septal filaments and acontia threads with cnidocytes Capable of both asexual and sexual reproduction Much larger polyps than other groups Fungi asp. o Solitary coral, mushroom coral o Calcareous skeleton – corallite Soft corals – gorgonians 3/31 Bilateria o Protosomia Lophotrochozoa Platyzoa – acoelomate bilateria Phylum Platyhelminthes – flat worms o Tripoblastic o Acoelomate – without body cavity o Protosome o Organs o Organ systems o “Acoelomate bilateria” bilateria = bilateral symmetry o flat to minimize distance across mesodermal tissue (tissues surrounding the gut) bigger worms are flatter o locomotion gliding in water or mucus trail – cilia on venter and the worm “squiggle” – circular (contractile – make the worms long and thin) and longitudinal (in the body wall) muscles alternating between these muscles gives worms the ability to squiggle o Digestive system: gastrovascular cavity (usually branched), pharynx sucks in food particles 3 major branches and little branches coming from those branching allows for better absorption of nutrient (more surface area and less distance to cross mesodermal tissue) o Excretory system (osmoregulation): Protonephridium (-ia) – flame cells, ducts, nephridiophores Pump water out Flame cell – cup shaped cell with cilia that create water movement. Connected to ducts Ducts – move water from flame cells to nephridiopores Nephiridiophores – where water exits o Nervous system Ganglia – clusters of nerve cells Cords – run down the body and connect nerve cells Sensory structures – move around environment in response to stimuli Ocellus – eyespot Auricles – tiny ears that function like a nose or tongue (chemosensory = smell food and move toward it) Regeneration – can be chopped up into pieces and pieces grow back into organisms Totipotent cells – produce any other kind of cell Neoblast – totipotent cells that aggregate at the wound and form blastema that grows new body parts Reproductive System: most are monoecious Female: ovary, oviduct (eggs passed along), genital pore Male: testis, vas deferens, copulatory structure (penis or serus) Lophotrochozoans o Named for two common characteristics Lophophore – a feed structure with tentables for filter feeding Trochophore – distinct larval stage P. Platyhelminthes o Class Turbellaria – planarians (free-living) o Class Trematoda – flukes All parasites Complex life cycles Many need 2+ hosts to accomplish transport of different larval stages Rarely see ocelli or auricles May not see flame cells Diagenetic flukes – two host in life cycles Monogenetic flukes – “fish parasites” Schistosomes – blood flukes Ex. Clonorichis sinensis – human liver fluke (3 hosts; 5 larval stages) Life cycle: o Egg Go out bile duct and gall bladder to small intestines and exit body into feces Eggs have to go into water o Miracidium – embryo inside egg hatches to this Miracidium eaten by aquatic cells = move into other larval stages o Sporocyst – first larval stage in snail Capable of growing as it eats the cell body and dividing by multiple fission) o Redia – produced by multiple fission o Cercaria free swimming stage looking for host (fish) Swim to top then drop to bottom repeatedly until fish comes by and they bore through the skin o Metacercaria – larval stage in flesh of skin of fresh water fish which are ingested by human host o Adult o Humans are primary host o Noth sexual and asexual reproduction Cestoda – tapeworms Scolex (attachment site for strobili) attached to a strobili (chain of asexual buds) Microtrich – tiny hairlike foldings for surface area to absorp nutrients through their skin Scolex has buds for asexual reproduct – produce new proglottids Gravid proglittids – packages of eggs All are parasites within the gut of vertebrate hosts Ex. beef tape worm Taenia saginata ( 2 hosts [human are primary, cows are seconday]; 2 larval stages) o Life cycle: eggs in proglottid, oncosphere, cysticercus, adult (scolex +strobili) o Human with long strobili and scolex attached to gut producing proglottids o Gravid proglottids exit the bodies through feces and get into a cow pasture o Cows eat the gravid proglottids o Eggs hatch in body of cow and develop into oncospheres o Oncospheres have hooks that allow them to bore into the intestine into the bloodstream into the muscle of the cow and develop into cysticerci (can be in hamburger meat) o Cysticerus eaten by human attaches to intestine and begins to produce proglottids
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