Mus. 139: Opera
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liliana Calderon on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 139 at University of New Mexico taught by Paula Corbin Swalin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Music Appreciation in Music at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
MISSY MAZZOLI: – Eclectic style: Combination of acoustic and electronic elements Traditional and non-traditional musical sounds • Voice – Minimalism – Changing the concept of “classical” music • “Cathedral City” – Written for Mazzoli’s ensemble “Victoire” • Keyboards, electronics, violin, clarinet, voice JENNIFER HIGDON Self-taught flute player; winner of Pulitzer prize “Amazing Grace” - Commissioned by the Sky Quartet • Arrangement of the traditional hymn originally for choir • Starts simply with original melody and counter melody • Homophonic/Polyphonic development • Accelerando to faster tempo OPERA Opera: A combination of poetry, dance, music, and visual art (scenery and costumes) -LIBRETTO: The text of an opera 1. Overture: orchestral piece at the beginning of opera, that will introduce themes of the opera 2. Aria: a lyrical songlike composition from an opera for a solo singer. Accompanied by full orchestra; similar to a monologue, does not move plot forward 3. Recitative: speech like singing style accompanied by basso continuo; moves the plot forward Would often be connected to Greco-Roman themes and mythical stories. England: HENRY PURCELL (1659-1695) -Most talented English composer of late 17th century -Opera---Dido and Aeneas Based on part of the Roman epic poem, the Aeneid by Virgil – libretto by Nahum Tate. • Tells story of love affair between Dido, the Queen of Carthage, and Aeneas, a mythical Trojan warrior. Aeneas abandons Dido, and she commits suicide -famous Aria, Dido’s Lament has Ostinato How opera began in France: Court of Versailles demanded elaborate performances and king Louis loved to dance Rameau makes many operas for the king -Opera ballet -Tragedie en music -Comedie lyrique -Pastorale Heroїque Les Indes Gallants (1735) Composed by Jean-Phillippe Rameau and premiered in 1735 Libretto incorporated exotic elements Opera-Ballet (Ballet-Heroïque) Prologue and four acts (entrées) Fourth entrées entitled Les Sauvages (The Savages) Set in Illinois, USA; Two characters compete for the affection of the daughter of a native chief THE CASTRATI: The Baroque era required singers to be virtuous, just like musicians, thus faster, higher notes were demanded CASTRATI: young boys from the church that were good singers that were castrated before puberty to achieve these expectations. If successful, they could do Coloratura – a lot of notes sung in a fast Tempo Opera in the Classical Era – Comic Opera Middle-class audiences were tiring of boring, mythological libretti that praised and aggrandized the monarchy Short, comic operas were played in front of the curtain between the acts of serious operas Intermezzo Italy - Opera Buffa – Italian comic opera France - Opéra Comique – French comic opera Germany – Singspiel – German comic opera with spoken dialogue All feature simpler music, down-to-earth characters, and amusing plots. Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) Based on a banned play by Beaumarchais The narrative included a triumph of servants over nobility and the humbling of a count The story appealed to the middle class but threatened the nobility The libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte had to be approved by Emperor Joseph II Premiered in 1786 Featured a “pants role” Woman dressed as a man, singing in a woman’s range One of the most frequently performed operas today Mozart’s Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) Premiered in 1791 at the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden Not a formal opera house Composed in German, not Italian Incredibly successful! Over 100 performances “Habanera” from Carmen by Georges Bizet Libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy -Premiered in 1875 and was not well-received -Premiere was delayed due to many factors including a search for the right leading lady -Exotic setting, sexual content arealism : A reaction to Romanticism where artists and composers depicted the true aspects (good and bad) of real life in their works. Death, adultery, low morals, murder, illness and other uncomfortable topics are explored instead of ignored. Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) (Italian) Memorable melodies Patriotic, nationalistic works Patriotic and political Viva Vittorio Emanuele Re D'Italia (Viva Verdi) RICHARD WAGNER (GERMAN) Rude and complicated man that would flee his country to escape his debts made opera his main compositional focus He called it “Music Drama” Gesamptkunstwerk: meaning "total art work" or "ideal art work". Wagner was “auteur” with total control over his productions -used Leitmotifs: recurring musical phrase that represents a person, emotion, situation or thing Example of this is his Ring Cycle (Flight of the Valkyries)
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