Week 12 Notes ANTH 102
Week 12 Notes ANTH 102 ANTH 102
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verified elite notetaker
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by vscobee2 on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 102 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Rory Dennison in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Week 12 Notes Notes cover Rapa Nui, Mesopotamia, and Egypt st Notes are on every other page, except for the 1 page Complexity without the State: Rapa Nui (Easter Island) General Information o Called Easter Island because it was found on Easter Sunday st o 1 settled in 700-1200AD by Polynesians from Gambier Islands o Chiefdom – no state bureaucracy, centralized state authority, or police force o Very remote location o In Pacific o Nearest inhabited island is 2000km away Closest town is even further Closest populated landmass is very far – central Chile o There was a drastic decrease in population before European contact o 1st European contact on April 5, 1722 – only a couple thousand people living there by this point o Used in slave trade and resources were exploited – led to population decrease Ecology o Large and slow-growing palm trees that are extinct everywhere else o Heavily forested (evidence in endocasts and lava flows) o Many land birds They’re the primary large game 30 species only found on Rapa Nui Many went extinct after human arrival o Mixed terrains o Deforestation after human arrival Coincidental minor environment shifts also contributed to less forests o Sheep farming harmed the fragile volcanic soil Moai (1100-1650AD) o Placement Line prehistoric roads Line ceremonial roads Face out to sea Meant to be noticed and watch over people o Related to ancestor worship/ancestor cults (mana) Meant to depict deceased heads of lineage to establish strong/powerful lineages and solidify their power/authority o Done by separate groups throughout Rapa Nui o Often had eye decoration or hat-like head decoration o Debate over how they were moved People 1 thought they used logs as rollers, as seen in the deforestation Not supported Moved by tying ropes around the top; people use a leverage system of pulling to move it back and forth and make it “walk” forward o Most carved from basalt o Construction elaborately planned Took 5-6 men a full year to complete 1 Moai o Many were toppled/damaged/defaced There was intense rivalry/competition at the end of the 17 century (the end of Moai) o Most are partly buried They have full-bodies but only the heads are above ground They were deliberately buried like that Rano Raraku o A mountain formed by volcanic eruptions o Used as a quarry Moai heads almost entirely built from Rano Raraku (95%) and moved to different places on island PAGE LEFT BLANK Used for over 500 years The largest Moai remain at the quarry – the largest is 270 tons and 71 ft. high Ahu Vinapu Site o Ceremonial center o Moai placed on Ahu stands Skilled stone masons made stands – hand-carved, seamless blocks Bird Man Cult o Contest to collect the 1 Sooty Tern egg of the season o Based on ritual activity o Center at Orongo o Replaced Moai construction o Based on migratory patterns of birds o People swam to small island off the coast (difficult/dangerous), climb up cliff, give egg to their patron – patron becomes leader (Bird Man) for the year o Eventually suppressed by Christian missionaries – culture changed Rongo-Rongo o A writing system o People don’t know how to translate it o We know it’s mostly about calendars and lineages o Only used by the elite o Depopulation = the people who knew how to read it died off o No other language correlates o Only 20-30 pieces left in private collections Mesopotamia st One of the 1 state-level societies/cradle of civilization In modern-day Iraq desert Environment: o Fertile Crescent between Tigris and Euphrates rivers – became fertile after the Neolithic PAGE LEFT BLANK o Limited minerals o Building materials available were mud-brick and reeds; needed to import stone and wood o Wet and muddy o Had to trade a lot o Close to the rivers was swampy and far from the rivers was very arid o Alluvial Valley Flooding deposited nutrient-rich silt and created fertile land Canals used to extend fertile land Rivers were their source of life o Movement of rivers not static Archeological sites often far away from modern rivers Early Chronology Review (Prior to Mesopotamia) o Natufian (11000-9000BC) Pre-agricultural Small, settled villages Intensive exploitation of wild plants Site: ‘Ain Mallaha o Early (Pre-Pottery) Neolithic Large towns, larger populations Cities built on tells 1 domesticated plants and animals Ritual structures and objects Sites: Jericho and Abu Hureyra o Late (Pottery) Neolithic Widespread collapse and dispersal End of earlier ritual systems Appearance of pottery Large communities in central/Western Turkey Site: Çatalhöyük Early Civilizations in the Middle East followed the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers PAGE LEFT BLANK Temples o Economic and religious roles o Received, stored, and redistributed surpluses and tributes o Owned land o Center of craft production o Used for surplus storage and later for irrigation o Possibly used by city rulers o Visually powerful o Often had walls so that there is restricted access (elites only) o Ziggurats: Stepped pyramid with building at the top A large base for the temple Very tall – taller than the city (a landmark) Isolates temples Based partially on the design of a mountain ‘Ubaid Period o 1 signs of Mesopotamian state-level societies o Urban populations living on flood plains o Large systems of irrigation-based agriculture o Institution of kingship and temple use o Sites: Ur, Uruk, and Eridu o Standardized pottery system Used potter’s wheel Standardized style/features Ensured cultural continuity o 1 Period (5000-4000BC) Shift southward Temple use Canal irrigation Harder than dry farming – more work and labor Produces more food – more surpluses PAGE LEFT BLANK Not everyone has to be farmers anymore Craft specialists now appear Make elaborate ceramics for the elites 3 Elite structures 1. Sacred Group (priests) 2. Monarchy (kings/rulers) 3. Bureaucracy (administrators) Eridu Site (5000-3000BC) In what is now an arid region Early Sumerian temple of mud-brick One of the oldest-known permanent settlements in the area Stacked building phases Temple associated with emerging elite and only used as a redistribution center No elaborate burials (not too much stratification) Social class evident in living differences Predates irrigation agriculture nd rd o 2 and 3 Period (4000-3200BC) (3200-2350BC) City-states More conflict/warfare between them for control over regions and resources Small, but what they controlled was important Shared culture Mesopotamia not one unified whole Uruk Site: Very large – up to 40000 people 100 miles North of Eridu st nd rd Settled in 1 Period but not important until 2 /3 Anu Ziggurat: o White temple on top of 40ft. tall ziggurat PAGE LEFT BLANK o Very large o Elaborate exterior o Central chamber with smaller rooms branching off (common design) o Took a number of years and people to build Ur Site: Walled temple precinct Craft Specialization Elaborate art goods, usually for the elite Mass production (potter’s wheel) Carved stone figurines and vases of alabaster (Warka vase) Ceramics = utilitarian o Beveled-rim bowls o Bowls all the same size = food rationed for laborers Trade Traded over a greater distance and with more diverse resources (lots of wood and metal) Metalworking Before now, mainly copper Now more bronze – stronger metal Used for wheeled vehicles – plows, warfare chariots, transport Better for weapons Writing Cuneiform Appeared by 3400BC in Uruk Very recognizable One of the earliest writing systems Mostly used for economic matters/records Clay Tokens Used for economic transactions PAGE LEFT BLANK Later, sealed inside containers Used as receipts for trade – like an invoice Eventually abandoned in favor of written clay tablets Used imprints Politics Temples, palaces, city council buildings Dependent on villages rd Competition increased in 3 Period for land Administration/bureaucracy and independent rulers Independent city-states Ur in the 3 Period One of Uruk’s rivals Had a royal cemetery o 2500burials and 16 tombs o Political stratification evident in burial goods o Sacrifices o Skilled craftsmanship in goods Bull’s Head Lyre – elite distinction o Pu-abi’s Tomb Female queen or high official Huge tomb Lots of grave goods and sacrificed attendants/guards Called the “Death Pit” Remains of chariot and full team of oxen rd End of 3 Period Increase in everything Conquered by ruler/state from the North in 2350BC o Sargon (Akkadian Empire) o Empire collapsed shortly after PAGE LEFT BLANK o Summary Sumer is not one large empire, but many independent city-states Temples increasingly important Surplus storage/redistribution Later canal irrigation Craft specialization Egypt Long-running civilization – able to study their own history Howard Carter discovered King Tut’s tomb Environment o Unique ecosystem o Desert/Valley/Delta Nile River o Societies centered along Nile River – extremely long (400mi) o Annual, predictable flooding deposits silt = fertile land for agriculture o Cataracts (rapids) – 1 one at Aswan o Upper = South and Lower = North o Used as a highway for trade, people, and goods o Canals built to branch off river o So important that the hieroglyphs for movement depict boats o Irrigation: System of smaller canals Shaduf: lever pole with bucket at the end to manually transport water between fields o Aswan Dam Built in 1960s/70s “High Dam” Built to control flooding of river and how far it extends Extremely large Destroyed massive areas of ancient remains/complexes PAGE LEFT BLANK Monuments moved outside of flood zone, and some to other countries Chronology o Predynastic»Early Dynastic»Old Kingdom»1 Intermediate»Middle Kingdom»2 nd Intermediate»New Kingdom»3 Intermediate»Late Period Neolithic to Predynastic o Neolithic = before 5000BC Mixed domesticates and wild plants/animals o Shift to agriculture along Nile o Climate shift = people forced to move closer to river o Lower Egypt Nile Delta Fayum Depression Evidence for earliest farmers (5200BC) Straw-lined storage pits Emmer wheat/barley Flint sickles/arrows Ceramics Flax (linen and cloth) Merimde/Maadi