Psychopathology Weekly Notes
Psychopathology Weekly Notes 20732
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20732 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Fernandez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 04/03/16
Psychopathology Weekly Notes: Health Psychology Health Psychology Health psychology is the scientific field that applies psychological theory and methods to the study of the promotion and maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of illness An interdisciplinary field concerned with development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science with an emphasis on knowledge and techniques relevant to the understanding of physical health and illness Applied to prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation Designing, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs Human Suffering – Treatment Philosophy Biomedical model – disease model, mind-body dualism Biopsychosocial model – related to primary cause of disease shift Almost 1 in 2 US adults has a chronic disease, treating chronic disease covers 75% of health care costs Role of behavior increasingly apparent Medicine embracing more patient-centered care and interdisciplinary teams that include mental health Psychological and Social Factors that Influence Health Psychological, behavioral, and social factors Major contributors to medical illness and disease like AIDS, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases These factors influence medical illness in two primary paths: Psychological factors can influence basic biological processes Long standing behavior patterns may put people at risk for chronic illnesses AIDS is an example of both forms of influence The patient’s lifestyle, behaviors and attitudes affect ability to fully make use of biological advances Stress External or environmental forces that create a stressful reaction Something experienced by the individual Body’s physiological response to a stressor, which is any event or change that requires adaptation Nature of Stress: the physiological response of an individual Stressor: an event that evokes stress response Stress responses vary from person to person The Stress Response: 1, alarm reaction: the body mobilizes its resources to cope with a stressor 2, resistance: the body seems to adapt to the presence of the stressor 3, exhaustion: the body depletes its resources The Physiology of Stress The biology of stress, activates the sympathetic branch of the ANS and activates the HPA axis where the adrenal glands ultimately produce cortisol The function of the hippocampus in HPA-stress response cycle Part of the limbic system and highly responsive to cortisol where the hippocampus helps to turn off the HPA cycle Relation to Stress Physiology Primate research – high vs. low social status Vulnerabilities in mental illness contribute to physical illness Low social support, negative affect and self-efficacy Interpretation of physiological response and situation AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus) Nature of AIDS Course from HIV to full-blown AIDS is variable Median time from initial infection to full-blown AIDS is around 7 to 10 years or more and more die of AIDS within a year of diagnosis Role of stress reduction programs Higher stress and low social support speed disease progression Reduce stress and improve immune system functioning The development and course of AIDS Influenced by psychological, behavioral and social factors Decreased stress, increase immune function Cancer: Psychological and Social Influences Psychological and behavioral contributions to cancer Perceived lack of control Inadequate or inappropriate coping responses (like denial) Lifestyle risk behaviors Cancer is influenced by psychological, behavioral and social factors Promising research – therapy Chronic Pain Acute vs. Chronic Pain Intensity of pain doesn’t predict reaction to it Psychological and social factors Perceived mind over pain, negative emotion, poor coping skills, low social support, compensation Social reinforcement for pain behaviors Treatment Response Opioids 30-50% TCA and antidepressants 30-50% CBT and mindfulness training 30-60% Physical exercise 30-60% Complimentary or Alternative Medicine (CAM) Dietary supplements, meditation, chiropractic, aromatherapy, massage therapy, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, spirituality/religion/prayer, movement therapy, acupuncture, reiki, biofeedback, hypnosis, music therapy Psychosocial Treatment of Physical Disorders Relaxation and Meditation Progressive muscle relaxation, imagery meditation Biofeedback Patient learns to control bodily response, like chronic headaches and hypertension Comprehensive stress reduction and pain management programs More effective and durable than individual interventions alone