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World Ocean

by: Tessa Snyder

World Ocean ENVS 101 001

Tessa Snyder

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About this Document

These notes cover details about the world ocean: how it circulates, regulates, and influences human behavior.
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tessa Snyder on Sunday April 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 101 001 at University of New Mexico taught by Alexandra Priewisch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see The Blue Planet in Environmental Science at University of New Mexico.


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Date Created: 04/03/16
World Ocean  Earth’s surface water originates from volcanic consolidated steam – oceans 4.4 billion years old  Waves and Coriolis force do not drive ocean currents World Ocean  Consists of three interconnected basins (Pacific, Atlantic, Indian) Mariana Trench: greatest ocean depth (11km) Ions in ocean water:  Two most prevalent: Chloride (55.07%) and Sodium (30.62%)  Average salinity of ocean water is 33-37%  Minerals come from: dissolved rocks, volcanic gases, dust, pollutants, gases in volcanic water  Controls of Salinity: o Evaporation (tropical water – evaporation > precipitation) o Precipitation o Freezing of sea ice Temperature and Heat Capacity:  Water has a lower rise in temperature than land; high heat capacity  Interacts with other spheres; controls and effects world climate  Stratification of ocean; different density levels o Deeper water is denser, colder, and potentially more saline o Gravity pulls denser water down which causes circulation Circulation: At the surface is broad and slow (interaction with wind friction)  Coriolis Effect: phenomenon that causes water to circulate in the atmosphere o Causes deflection of moving objects due to earth’s rotation  Eckman Transport: friction reduces wind’s effects and current velocity with depth – creates Eckman spiral o Net direction of water movement is about 90 degrees of wind’s o Coastal interaction – upwelling versus down-welling  Upwelling: deep water towards coast, surface water away from it  Down-welling: surface water towards coast, deep water away  Current Systems: o Gyres (surface water) caused by wind o Temperature and Salinity (deep water) Oceans and Society Used for fishery, natural resources, travel and transport, climate moderation Coastal Erosion: Structural responses (i.e. sea walls), nonstructural responses (i.e beach nourishment, plantings) Changing Sea Level: over long period of time (evastic) interval changes  Related to global warming: 2.4 mm/year  Submergence: rise in sea level  Emergence: lowering in sea level


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