Notes from april 4 2016
Notes from april 4 2016 CDAE 127
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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by kaswimmer on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 127 at University of Vermont taught by Sun Tao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Consumer Policy in Business at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Starting is the material we didn’t get to last class Suicide first, then breast cancer topic • 40 years of research has identified the conditions under which media reporting about suicide is likely to be followed by an increase in suicide. Studies have shown that, overall, suicide rates rise after increased media reporting about suicide, with a greater amount of coverage associated with a greater rise. Study guide: what is the difference between princess diana death and 9/11 attacks in suicide means. Public policy- censorship when talking about this kind of news • Non-fictional as opposed to fictional stories, newspaper as opposed to television reporting, and stories about the suicide of political or entertainment celebrities are more likely to be followed by a surplus of suicides, whereas reporting that portrays suicide negatively is less likely to be followed by a rise in suicide rates. A decreased frequency in the reporting of suicides after the implementation of media guidelines has been associated with significantly lowered suicide rates. in china, they have very vimedia).ails of the deaths. (Professor brings up images of Chinese • Specifically, the publication of news stories about suicidal individuals, and particularly of prominent, detailed, and explicit stories about completed suicides, is discouraged, and heightened vigilance regarding already vulnerable individuals, especially adolescents, is recommended in the aftermath of the publication of such stories. Social Media and Suicide: A Public Health Perspective • Together, these studies have shown that obtaining prosuicide information on the Internet, including detailed information on suicide methods, is very easy. On the other hand, some search engines have a suicide hotline that pops up first when you try to search methods to kill your self. Is this medias responsibility? There are several specific ways that social media can increase risk for prosuicide behavior. Cyberbullying and cyber harassment, for example, are serious and prevalent problems. • In sum, evidence is growing that social media can influence prosuicide behavior. Because the Internet eliminates geographic barriers to communication between people, the emergence of prosuicide social media sites may present a new risk to vulnerable people who might otherwise not have been exposed to these potential hazards. New topic • Breast cancer topic from here on today iClicker Exercise What of the following is the No. 1 cause of deaths for women in the US? a. Heart disease b. Cancer c. Stroke d. Chronic lower respiratory disease e. Alzeimer’s disease iClicker Exercise What of the following is the No. 1 cause of cancer deaths for women in the US? a. Lung cancer b. Breast cancer ( although it is the most common cancer in women) c. Colorectal cancer Risk Perceptions of Breast Cancer • What are the major findings regarding risk perceptions of breast cancer?lung cancer > breast cancer • What are the reasons for the perceptions? Media manipulation? Heart Disease vs. Breast Cancer Based on current data, for women 60 years old the incidence rate of heart disease is approximately 1,000 per 100,000 (1 out of 100), compared to 364 per 100,000 (1 out of 275) for breast cancer. (illustrates that heart dieses is more server against a womens help than breast cancer is even though the public would assume breast cancer is more of a problem. The media coverage is critical) H1 (hypothesis 1) The skills needed to evaluate the current abundance of media reports about women’s age-related diseases will be absent in a significant number of women, leading to misperceptions about such risks. ( basically propose that becasuse we don’t have the right skills to cover the news that this is why there is a misconception) H1 •Over two thirds of the women surveyed erroneously perceived that women have a greater chance of dying from breast cancer than from lung cancer • One third of the women surveyed believed incorrectly that women have a greater chance of dying from breast cancer than from heart disease • Over three fifths of the women surveyed incorrectly believed that mammography (debateful topic) reduced the incidence of breast cancer You should be doing correlation analyzes not just survey. H1 …in media reports about breast cancer, the “one in eight” figure frequently quoted in newspapers and television refers to the cumulative lifetime risk of breast cancer for a woman who lives beyond the age of 85. However, a woman’s cumulative lifetime risk of developing breast cancer by age 30 is 1 in 2,000—this risk rises to 1 in 225 by age 40, 1 in 52 by age 50, and 1 in 22 by age 60 (Ries et al., 2001). The media gives out the data that looks most scandalous and attention grabbing. It is only 1 in8 when you live last 85 years old. Obviously the longer you live, the most chances that you get a shitty and awesome illness goes up. H2, H3 and H4 H2: The risk of breast cancer, a disease that is dreaded, whose mechanisms are poorly understood and are not under their personal control, will be exaggerated. H3: Exaggerated perceptions of the risk of breast cancer will encourage many women to neglect other serious risks to their health. H4: Excessive fear of breast cancer will likely result in (a) decreased attention to actions that can prevent or lead to the early detection of heart disease, and (b) overlooking the benefits of important interventions and therapies. This is emotionally overwhelming and you will be focused on cancer soly, which distracts you from the more major offenses (like heart disease) 14-16 H2, H3 and H4 •Nearly three fifths of the women surveyed cited cancer as the health problem they fear most, whereas fewer than one tenth of the women cited heart attacks. • Three tenths of the women surveyed believed that breast cancer has the largest impact on a woman’s quality of life, one fourth citedAlzheimer’s disease, less than one fifth cited heart disease, and less than one tenth cited osteoporosis • Nearly one fourth of the women surveyed cited breast cancer as the health condition they were personally most concerned about, more than cited Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, or osteoporosis. This demonstates a medias affect on your health. It is a socialization tool and will manipulate your actions 14-17 H2, H3 and H4 •One fifth of the women surveyed incorrectly believed that heart disease is the leading cause of death among men, but not among women • Only one fourth of the women surveyed believed that lung cancer is the leading cancer killer among women This is media manipulation “sometimes hard news doesn’t take the time to do fact checks and they are against a deadline so things get missed”-Tao Sun 14-18 H2, H3 and H4 •Two fifths of the women familiar with the term hormone replacement therapy were unaware or uncertain that it can reduce their chances of developing heart disease • One fourth of the women familiar with the term hormone replacement therapy were unaware or uncertain that it can reduce their chances of developing osteoporosis 14-19 H6 H6: Women rely more heavily on media sources for information on health related issues than on health care professionals. We are most exposed to media news than the doctors advise because one is free and thrown in our faces and doctors visits cost money H6 •Approximately four fifths of the women surveyed relied on the general media (television, newspapers, and magazines) for information on health related Issues. Is this the same rate for men or what? EVERYONE is exposed to media>doctors •Approximately one fourth of the women received information on health topics from doctors or nurses. Too little too late and it may not be enough time to get anything done Medical News Coverage •Nearly one in five news stories about older women’s health omits critical facts • Among research-based media stories, one in four did not mention limitations of the research, such as small sample size This affects the validity of the sample and makes the experiment less valid Medical News Coverage • Few media stories about the health of older women mentioned other medical studies on the same topic, thus depriving the reader of context necessary to evaluate the study • Media reports about women’s health issues tend to focus on breast cancer—many more articles appear on breast cancer than on heart disease, lung cancer, osteoporosis, andAlzheimer’s disease, even though heart disease and lung cancer each cause higher mortality among U.S. women than does breast cancer. WHY more coverage on breast cancer? Because it is the most common of cancers and maybe it is getting over diagnosed? More funding has gone into this field? It can be sexualized and more personal (?) 14-23 Reason for the Misperception •Research has found that people perceive as riskier, and are more concerned over, those processes and diseases that are dreaded and whose mechanisms are poorly understood and are not under their personal control. We fear what we can not control and have no say over it. Whereas maybe you think that running will help your heart Reason for the Misperception •In particular, health risks from sensational or dramatic causes of death, including cancer, tend to be greatly overestimated. Health risks from less dramatic, less dreaded, and assumingly better understood and controllable causes (e.g., cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, emphysema, and asthma) tend to be underestimated. Cancer takes longer to die from and its not a quick as a heart attack so we fear that more Reason for the Misperception •Breast cancer is more dreaded, its causes are less understood, and its risk factors are less under personal control than heart disease or lung cancer. •As a consequence, the perceived risk of breast cancer is amplified, and the perceived risk of the other diseases is attenuated. Reason for the Misperception •An important finding from the focus group research was that the risks of breast cancer and the use of interventions and therapies are highly emotional issues. Breast cancer is personal and sexualized •Worry over these issues can hamper critical thinking. •In interpreting communications regarding breast cancer and interventions and therapies, the focus group participants often reacted initially at a highly emotional level and had difficulty assigning proper weight to scientific evidence. Because it is highly emotional Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1974) • Attribution theory is concerned with how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavior. • Causal dimensions of behavior are (1) locus of control, (2) stability, and (3) controllability. • When you think it is out of your control, you wont take preventative measures like going to doctors or getting fresh air. Source: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/attributi on-theory.html Attribution Theory **Media Agenda Setting** The media are particularly effective in telling people what to attend to and what to think about, although they are less effective in telling people what to think. ****Study guide for short answer questions: how can you use media agenda setting? Explain using theory above and how it is applied. They will lead to you think about their agenda and warp what you think about a topic. **** this practice started with poltics Media Framing •Selective and biased reporting that emphasizes drama, conflict, expert disagreements, and uncertainties • Failure to provide important background information, such as information in a cancer story about general cancer rates; the most common forms of cancer; known sources of public ignorance about cancer; and detection, treatment, and other protective measures You control what seems to be important and what should or shouldn’t be seen/heard. Facts and stats can be used to do this. When personal stories are emphasizes, we focus on the emotion behind the problem and get side tracked Media Framing Episodic framing depicts concrete events that illustrate issues, while thematic framing presents collective or general evidence Individualized in natured Media Framing People are often more influenced by a single, salient, colorful case history or human interest story than by medical or scientific information (Chaiken, 1987; Chaiken, Liberman, & Eagly, 1989; Petty & Cacioppo, 1986). The fact is people care and very specific things and you have to frame things in ways that get the CORRECT message across Federal Spending on Cancer Research Cancer Type 2011 Spending 2012 Spending 2013 Spending (in millions) (in millions) (in millions) Lung $296.8 $314.6 $285.9 Prostate 288.3 265.1 255.6 Breast 625.1 602.7 559.2 Colorectal 265.1 256.3 238.3 Bladder 20.6 23.4 20.3 Melanoma 115.6 121.2 122.5 Non-Hodgkin 126.4 119.5 113.7 Lymphoma Kidney 46.2 49.0 45.6 Thyroid 16.2 16.5 19.6 Endometrial 15.9 19.1 17.8 (Uterine) 14-34
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