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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Henson Destine on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIL160 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Krempels in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Evolution and Biodiversity in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Henson Destine Biology 161 Chapter 22 Lecture 2345 0 The age of things 0 000000 0 Using Radiometric dating devices scientists estimated the time that our universe and all in it first showed up The universe is 1020 billion years old Our solar system and earth is 45 billion years old Life on earth is 4 billion years old The proto hominids showed up 44 million years ago Homo Sapiens showed up 400000 years ago The modern homo sapiens sapiens showed up 200000 years ago In hour clock analogy humans have been here for less than a second 0 Who s who in evolutionary Theory A history 0 O O O The origin of life is not the same as the evolution of life 2500 years ago Plato and his student Aristotle believed in an unchanging world where all species had been created in a perfect state with perfect interactions intact Aristotle said that life forms were arranged in a scala naturae a ladder of increasing complexity and perfection It goes BC l1 1g GO Angels I Demons 39 ilkIan I Wom an Real m n f Being I Animals quot Plants lN nerals Non Being u Realm of Beam ll 11gJr 0 Organic Evolution 0 Jean Baptiste Lamarck l He concluded that organisms could change from generation to generation I These changes were driven by a felt need I He meant that animals could change from one generation to the next if their environment required change for the next generations survival l He thought that traits acquired by an individual in its lifetime could be passed on to that individuals children I Example giraffes had long necks because they had to stretch to reach food high in the trees Each generation developed a slightly longer neck from stretching and passed the longer necks on their babies I Lamarck also believed that evolution could cause atrophy I Used structures become larger and stronger unused structures will atrophy and become vestigial I He argued traits acquired during an organisms lifetime could be passed on to its offspring and his was a driving force of evolution I Published in 1809 his work was widely accepted I We now know however that traits acquired during an organism s lifetime are not passed to its offspring Mendel s and Darwin s work helped refute Lamarck s theory I Now Epigenetic inheritance say that not all inheritance is Mendilian Environment can play a role so Lamarck wasn t all wrong 0 Georges Cuvier I Developed the science of paleontology while Lamarck was publishing his ideas French anatomist I He noted deeper strata of sedimentary rock had diversity of organisms more different from present day life than more recent strata His reason Catastrophism 0 Charles Darwin I One of the most in uential scientist of all time Theory on hos evolution proceeds O Mootoo Kimura I Says that not all eveolution is Darwinian I Published a book that states that random neutral changes in DNA at molecular level can have profound evolutionary consequences over time Rate this happens depends on population size I Known as genetic drift and now known to play a major role in evolutionary change in living populations 0 The Darwinian Revolution 0 In addition to the previous scientist Darwin had other in uences I James Hutton 0 Scottish geologist challenged Cuvier s view in 1795 with his idea of gradualism proposing that large changes in the earth s surface could be caused by slow constant processes such as erosion Hutton is the father of modern geology I Charles Lyell I Said earth processes had been going on steadily and constantly for ages and could explain the appearance of the earth Termed Uniformitariasnism became a strong basis for Darwin s later theory of natural selection Thomas Malthus 0 Religious scholar who suggested that much of human s suffering could be explained by overpopulation 0 Voyage of the Beagle Darwin was born in 1809 in Shrewsbury England He loved bugs and slugs and spent time outside reading nature books His father a wellknown physician thought no good life awaited a naturalist sent Darwin at 16 to Medical School Darwin dropped out With father s blessings enrolled at Christ College to become a clergyman Fell in with the biologists With the help of Darwin s uncle in 1831 Henslow convinced both captain of the beagle and Darwin s father to let Darwin go on the five year voyage as an unpaid gentleman scholar and naturalist and learned companion for the captain At age of 22 Darwin set sail Collected every living thing he could lay his hands on 1836 Darwin returned to England settled down married his cousin Emma and wrote 1 BUB Lamarelc publishes his hypethesis ei evelutien ll TEE Mallhus publishes Essay en the Frineiplle ef lFepuiai ien 1sie Easier publishes his extensive siudies ef we rtehlraie liessils 1 EBquot 13 95 llwtten prepeses his pri lneiple ref While studying species il39ll 39ihe l39ll39lallialjlr Arelhipeiagle Wallace shown in i345 grsdu aliism Lyell piltilishes sends Darwin his hype ihes is Principles if Geoldyy sill naturai selection 1ee V I 183D i l d 133F135 1359 Grieries Darwin Darwin travels alreulnd the 515ng 5 the werid en HMS Beagle is hem Spesies is published 1544 7 7 39 ii 7 7 7 7 Darwin WFiitES quot essayf en descent with mediiieatien WE riskI39ll Ill INPE I i i39u II The Gal pages islands Darwin came to visualize the evolution of life as a spreading tree with an ancestor at the base and the descendant species represented as the branches Termed the gradual change of one species into another descent with modification Darwin made profound observations from which he inferred brilliant conclusions 0 Observation 1 All species have huge potential fertility Observation 2 Except for seasonal uctuations populations tend to maintain a stable size 0 Observation 3 Environmental resources are limited 0 Inference 1 The production of more individuals than the environment can support leads to a struggle for existence with only a fraction of offering surviving in each generation 0 Observation 4 No two individuals are exactly alike Observation 5 Much of the variation is heritable 0 Inference 2 Survival in the struggle for existence is not random but dependent on hereditary makeup of the survivors 0 Inference 3 Unequal reproduction between suited and unsuited organisms will cause a gradual change in a population Theory of evolution by means of natural selection can be broken down int four basic ideas 0 1 Overproduction O Organisms are capable of producing huge numbers of offspring O 2 Heritable Variability 0 Those offspring are variable in appearance and function and some of those variations are heritable 0 3 Competition 0 Environment resources are limited and offspring must compete for their share 0 4 Differential Reproduction 0 Survival and reproduction of the varied offspring is not random Individuals with inherited characteristics will be able to better compete for resources than others Darwin tortured by the religiouscultural implications of his theory was slow to publish His friend Charles Lyell warned him that if he did not publish someone might beat him to it In June of 1858 Alfred Wallace wrote an essay outlining the same ideas that Darwin had of natural selection 0 Darwin almost gave up at that point Charles Lyell and his collegue went to Linnaean Society meeting on July 1 1858 and presented Darwin s and Wallaces Idea Since Darwin wrote it first he was given credit but Wallace was always given a footnote 0 Survival of the Fittest One of the most misused phrases on earth Coined by Social Philosopher Herbert Spencer 0 The preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life 0 Not used in modern biology so not to confuse true meaning of natural selection Survival of the fittest is often thought of as a tautology or a circular definition or phrase Basically 0 Survival does not imply fitness reproductive success 0 Fitness does not imply long term survival Evolutionary Fitness is differential reproduction due to organisms diferring abilities to cope with environmental limitations 0 May be adaptive which increases the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring O Maladaptive decreases the likelihood that the individual will leave offspring 0 Neutral does not affect the likelihood will leave offspring Hence evolutionary fitness is determined by environment 0 Terminology The terms evolutionist or Darwinist imply that evolution is only a theory Evolution is observable testable phenomenon Darwin was a person who elucidated one means by which evolution occurs 0 Scientists who study the study the processes and mechanism are called evolutionary biologists not evolutionists The Only a Theory argument is awed in that it fails to separate two important things 0 l Extant species evolved from ancestral forms 0 2 Natural selection is the main mechanism by which this occurred 0 Darwins conclusion is an observable phenonmenon based on observable evidence and subject to the scientific method 0 Evolution is observable O Darwin s theory explains how evolution can proceed 0 It does not explain the origin of life only how it changed once it got here 0 Natural selection is not the only mechanism by which living things evolve The fact of Evolution Observable Evidence 0 Four major line of physical evidence Observable examples Fossils Distribution in space and time And homologies 0 Species and Speciation I Look up definition of species all the members of a population that can interact with each other and reproduce through normal fertile and viable options 0 Macroevolution speciation I Speciation is the generation of two reproductively isolated new species from an ancestral species I Speciation implies that two new species are no long able to produce fertile viable offspring with each other they are reproductively isolated I Speciation is synonymous with macroevolution I Speciation can be relatively quick or gradual depending on the species and circumstances 0 Microevolution I A population can undergo genetic change with respect to other populations of the same species but not become reproductively isolated from them Such genetic change is known as microevolution 0 Evidence Microevolution observed I MRSA I Staphylococcus aureus S aureus ubiquitous and usually harmless I Can be treated with penicillins and a beta lactam antibiotic Interfere with the activity of an enzyme used by the bacteria to construct their cell walls during cell division I They are becoming resistant to antibiotics I Antibiotic Resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis 0 Mycobacterium Tuberculosis causes TB in human and other primates 0 TB was almost eradicated but later resurged due to new resistant to antibiotics 0 Animals in higher latitudescolder climates have larger bodies with a lower surface area to volume ratio than those in lower latitudeswarmer climates Also consider that darker colors absorbs lightheat Lighter colors re ect lightheat 0 Evidence Macroevolution observed I Rocks and fossils show us how long life has been there not how life changed over time I Paleontology and geology were the first to yield information suggesting the earth was a few thousand years old I To become a fossil you need 0 Hard body parts 0 Rapid burial 0 Protection from scavengersbacteria 0 Protection from oxygen I Fossils can be part of an organisms body or trace fossils They can be altered or unaltered 0 Relative Dating Early Paleontologists and geologists did not have the technology to determine the absolute age of a fossil they were studying The process of determining the chronological order of a fossil deposition is known as relative dating 0 Common forms of sedimentary rock 0 O O O O Sandsone compressed layers of silicabased minerals Limestone composed of crushed calcium carbonate shells Shale compressed layers of clay Gypsum composed of sulfur containing minerals Conglomerate 0 Erosion by wind and water over millions of years will gradually wear away particles of earth and wash them into bodies of water As particles settle they solididfy As more layers form lower layers are compressed and eventually become rock Such formations are a stratigraphic column 0 The verical placement of rock layers in a particular location 0 In geology O 0 Older layers of sediment are covered by younger layers Principle of Superposition If organisms evolve and change over time then specific species found can be used as age markers linking geographically distant sediments Principle of fossil succession Anything embedded in sedimentary rock must be older than the rock itself Inrusions that cut through sediments are younger then the sedimentary layers they cross Principle of CrossCutting relationships Sedimentary rocks that have been deformed by folding lifting or other malformation must be older than the event that changed them Principle of Deformation These principles can determine the relative age of fossils embedded in sedimentary rock To give an absolute age to a fossil one must use radiometric techniques
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