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Intro to Environmental Science 001

by: Sadie Shelton

Intro to Environmental Science 001 ENSC 001

Marketplace > University of Vermont > Environmental Science > ENSC 001 > Intro to Environmental Science 001
Sadie Shelton

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Lecture 10
Intro Environmental Sci
Nicholas P. Perdrial
Class Notes
ensc, environmental, Science, 001, 1
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Shelton on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENSC 001 at University of Vermont taught by Nicholas P. Perdrial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro Environmental Sci in Environmental Science at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Tuesday, March 29, 2016 Lecture 10 — Water Resources and Pollution ENSC 001 Problems - Supply and demand - Human Impact on Surface water flow - Pollution Water Decline - Irrigation started around 1950, depleted the great plains aquifer by: Up to 256 feet decline • • Loss of 266.7 million acre-feet (~10% of total storage) • Unsustainable: withdrawal > natural recharge • Threat to water quality from agriculture - Environmental effects of ground water depletion: • Groundwater is a contributing source for many streets, rivers and creeks. During drought, the GW buffers the environment • Wetlands, riparian ecosystems, estuaries and aquifer ecosystems depend on ground water - Current measures: • Reduce water use - Improve irrigation efficiency - Replace inefficient irrigation systems • Improve water quality - Apply nutrient management practices - Help producers in maintaining water quality • Enhance economic viability of croplands and rangeland - Plan non irrigated vegetation 1 Tuesday, March 29, 2016 - Convert land to dry farming - Adjust crop rotations Human impacts on water availability - Water availability can be unpredictable - Humans have learned to live with variations in water availability by modifying the system • Channel flows • Block flows • Divert Flows - Understanding our impacts help us design more efficient systems Channeling/Levee - Rivers naturally flood into their flood plain • Pros: - Provides rich sediments for agriculture - Preserves biodiversity - Controls sediment deposition and river profile • Cons: - Floods permanent structures and fields • Because of the cons, humans have sought ways to prevent flooding by construction levees, dikes, and dams • Construction of levees leads to: - Elevation of the channel bed & rising of the river • River sediments are being deposited on the river bed instead of spreading over the land when the river naturally floods - Levees have to be tightened - Ignoring natural channel migration - Floods are not controlled 2 Tuesday, March 29, 2016 • The river has to change its course at some point and flood • The floods are more damaging than they would be if the levees did not exist Effects of Floods on the Ecosystem - Sediment deposits which enrich the soil - Increase fish habitat - Separation of channel and floodplain (levees) = unnatural state that destroys key aquatic habitats without natural room to expand, stream power, stage and water velocity increases artificially until the barriers breaks 3


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