Week 13 AMH2097
Week 13 AMH2097 AMH2097
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by JennaEliteNotetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Amundson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
4/4/16% -! US entered World War 2 in 1941 to defend the four freedoms o! Introduced in January 1941 by Roosevelt o! Freedom of speech, worship, want, and fear o! Government spending during WW2 got the US out of depression o! Woman began to enter the job force o! Rural Americans began moving to cities for work o! Military spending was focused on parts of the country that had not yet been completely developed such as Florida o! December 1971 Pearl Harbor in Hawaii was attacked and the US entered the WW o! Isolationism !! The US should not involve itself in foreign policy and disputes especially in Europe o! Germany declared war on the US o! Some called WW2 a gross national product war o! Fighting in 1944 in Italy o! Paris was liberated in 1944 -! War and the Economy o! California received 10% of the nations military spending by the end of WW2 o! 2 million Americans moved to California during the war to take jobs o! People moved from rural areas into cities for employment in cities and shipyards -! Woman and War o! Government became involved as a concern for ongoing labor issues o! Inequalities existed based on race and sex o! Black woman faced significant resistant against white woman o! Black men and woman were displaying a new militancy o! NAACP had over 4,000 members after the war !! Increased it’s membership by 9 times during the war o! The “Double V” Camp !! African Americans and others hoped the second WW would be a push for equality and that their active participation in the war would help make the argument that equality was needed and fair !! Headed by NAACP and other civil rights organizations !! V stood for Victory in Japan in the war and in the US in the work force -! Activists who were angry about their experience during WW2 began to speak out o! Pauli Murray !! During WW2 she was a law student at Howard University !! Was arrested in Virginia for refusing to give up their seats on a bus !! Participated in sit downs in restaurants that refused to serve African Americans !! Began to develop a theory of attacking segregation that lawyers adopted in the 1950s -! Chinese people were seen as good Asians and China was an ally of the US but had been taken over by the US -! Executive Order of 9066 o! Sent Japanese people on the west coast to internment centers o! Woman sought to recreate family life !! Did the cleaning and washing without running water 4/4/16% !! Had to supplement meals with produce they grew themselves o! Young woman worked n the camps as clerks or teachers o! Young people left the internment camps to go to college, join the military, or to work % 4/6/16% &! African%Americans%at%War% o! Red%cross%separated%black%and%white%blood%during%WW2% o! Nazi’s%claimed%Americans%were%hypocrites%and%that%they%couldn’t%condemn%them%for% their%racial%policies%when%they%had%their%own%against%blacks% o! Blacks%took%part%in%the%great%migration%moving%to%cities% o! Marines%and%air%force%completely%segregated%at%the%beginning%of%the%WW2% o! African%Americans%faced%segregation%during%the%war% o! Northern%African%Americans%would%have%to%go%south%for%military%training% o! 1943%polling%showed%that%whites%had%any%idea%that%they%were%angry%and%engaged%in%an% active%campaign%for%their%rights% !! Worked%within%labor%unions%to%make%sure%black%workers%could%be%trained%for%highly% skilled%and%paying%jobs% o! 1944%navy%began%to%desegregate%their%ships% o! By%the%end%of%WW2%the%military%was%completely%desegregated% o! Americans%during%the%war%started%to%pay%more%attention%to%issues%of%racial%equality% o! One%World%by%Gunnard%Myrdal% !! Sold%over%a%million%copies%in%the%US% !! Most%provocative%argument%was%that%America%needed%to%take%care%of%their% imperialism%at%home% •! Said%that%it%was%a%paradox%that%would%strip%the%US%of%their%moral%equality% &! August%6 %1945%Americans%dropped%an%atomic%bomb%on%Hiroshima,%Japan% o! Selected%because%they%were%alone%among%Japanese%cities%% o! 70,000%people%died%instantly% !! Death%toll%continued%to%rise%from%radiation% !! In%the%next%three%months%70,000%more%people%died% th &! August%9 %the%US%dropped%another%atomic%bomb%in%another%city%killing%another%70,000% people% &! August%14 %1945%Japan%surrendered% &! Henry%Luce%and%Henry%Wallace% &! Working%people%saw%WW2%as%a%crusade%for%freedom%which%would%help%the%economy% &! During%the%war%workers%worked%to%move%union%memberships%to%unprecedented%levels% &! By%1945%1/3 %of%all%non%agricultural%workers%were%members%of%unions% &! 1941%the%US%celebrated%the%150 %anniversary%of%the%bill%of%rights% o! Roosevelt%pointed%to%the%protection%from%tyranny% &! 1943%the%supreme%court%reversed%an%earlier%ruling%and%defended%the%rights%of%the%Jehovah% witnesses%to%solute%the%flag% &! Freedom%from%want%was%the%most%important%of%the%four%freedoms% o! Roosevelt%originally%intended%for%this%to%be%about%free%trade%to%help%the%world%economy% o! During%the%war%it%became%linked%to%the%idea%of%preventing%another%depression% o! Americans%understood%that%WW2%brought%them%out%of%depression% o! Roosevelt%said%this%kind%of%security%would%be%true%freedom%for%the%common%American% &! Carlos%Bulosan% o! Wrote%essay%about%how%the%four%freedoms%could%inspire%hope%for%the%future%and%wrote% about%people%who%were%left%out%of%the%four%freedoms% 4/6/16% o! Discussed%migrant%workers%and%black%men%and%women%living%under%Jim%Crow% &! % % % % % % 4/8/16& -! One World – made an argument that racism was an issue in the US -! Consumer Culture o! Levittown o! The GI Bill (1944) !! Caused enormous change in American society because it was focused on veterans it impacted more men than women !! Only for military veterans who had an honorable discharge from the military !! By 1950s over 2 million veterans attended college on the GI Bill !! By 1960’s had trained thousands of doctors, dentists, engineers, and scientists o! American products began to be sold world wide o! A home, a car, and a tv set was considered the basis for middle class families to be considered well off o! Woman and Family !! Wives/mothers took on a new role !! The Baby Boom •! Average of 3.2 children per couple during this time •! Eradication of polio •! New vaccinations being made such as penicillin -! Race and suburbia o! Almost entirely white o! Clause that said people in suburbs could not sell their houses to black people -! Displaced Persons o! US started to deal with refugees o! Congressional committees were offering end to quotas o! 1952 conservative chelation in congress reaffirmed the quota system -! House Un-American Activities Committee o! Start to investigate communist influence in Hollywood o! Heard testimony from famous people who claimed that Hollywood was corrupt with communism o! The Hollywood 10 !! Charged with contempt of congress and sentenced to jail for one year -! Julius and Ethel Rosenberg o! Working class Jewish communist couple from New York city o! Convicted of conspiracy of passing secrets of an atomic bomb to the USSR o! They did pass information that helped speed up the making of atomic bombs o! Ethel had little involvement with this o! Conviction against both of them of conspiracy was almost certain o! Charged with causing the Korean War and adopting atheism o! Sentenced to die and both were executed in 1953 despite an international outcry o! Historians still debate the guilt of Rosenberg and that it’s unclear of what the true situation was