HY 104 Notes 3/28 & 3/30
HY 104 Notes 3/28 & 3/30 HY 104
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Steiner on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 104 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kari Frederickson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see HY 104 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
3/28/16 Roosevelt and the Second New Deal, 19351938 I. Challenges to Roosevelt—The depression was global which led to the rise of dictators in Europe, Agricultural Adjustment Act/NRA are taken off the table, Huey Long was a potential threat, but was killed before the election II. Second New Deal, 193538: Remembering the “Forgotten Man”—Roosevelt realizes the First New Deal wasn’t effective, and that Huey Long wasn’t that far off. a. Works Progress Administration (WPA)—hired anthropologists, folklorists, created local theaters and hired play writes and actors to write plays and put on performances b. Social Security Act, 1935—an acknowledgement that the government has some responsibility to provide for people who are least able to provide for themselves; elderly, impoverished, children who’s parents have died, etc. It is based on payroll taxes. FICA—Usually about 7%. Once you retire, you start drawing that money. It was meant originally to be a supplement, not something to rely on, which people were doing. It was usually about $22/month. It’s a form of welfare. The act is successful; it helps to remind the citizens of the U.S. that he does care about them. Many voters start to switch to the democratic party, particularly foreign minorities. c. Wagner Act, 1935—(Robert Wagner) it gives workers the right to organize, prohibits employers from preventing employees to start a union. About 1/3 of all industrial workers are part of a union; most union workers are making much better pay and benefits that non union workers. d. Fair Labor Standards Act, 1938—sets a minimum wage, setup a standard work week, setup a break system during shifts, outlawed child labor; only in special circumstances can children under the age of 16 work. Foreign Policy in the 1930s and the March Towards War Impact of WWI on foreign policy—we’re licking our wounds and people are not particularly concerned about foreign policy. o (20s) FP was left to secretaries of state—Wilson was very involved but it didn’t turn out very well. o The focus in the 20s was to decrease the likelihood of future wars because WWI had been so catastrophic. Policymakers are doing everything they can to make sure it doesn’t happen again. It doesn’t seem very likely to happen again but……. U.S. helps to pay off Germany’s WWI debt. 77% of Americans believed that our involvement in WWII was a mistake. Even though the war started in 1914 and we didn’t get involved until 1917, we were providing for the Allies in the interim. Nye Committee Hearings, 19341935 Isolationism and the Neutrality Acts, 19351937—pieces of legislation that are meant to keep us neutral (something that Wilson couldn’t do), congress doesn’t allow Roosevelt to make these decisions. 1. fejief 2. If there is a war going on in any part of the world, if an American wants to visit that warzone, its at your own risk; the U.S. will not back you up if anything happens to you. 3. If two nations are at war we will not lend them any money 4. If a nation wants to buy something from us (e.g. penicillin), they have to pay us via cash and carry; they have to come get it themselves, and they have to pay us upfront in cash. Roosevelt’s Quarantine Speech, 1937— o Delivered in Chicago o Equates the problems of Mussolini and Hitler as a disease and that we have to block the spread o He thought that he’d win the people over, but didn’t because the public is still unwilling to move ahead. Italy (Mussolini who was elected in 1932) attacks Ethiopia and Roosevelt wants to get involved to Ethiopia, but can’t because of the acts. Hitler liked this. Hitler accurately predicts that he can do a lot of things before the U.S. gets involved. Events in Europe & Start of WWII 3/30 Foreign Policy in the 1930s and the March Towards War 1. Events in Europe and Start of WWII a. Hitler advances across Europe very quickly b. 1940s Nazis have occupied many countries in about 7 months c. Britain is the only thing standing between Hitler and concurring Europe 2. Selective Service Act, 1940 a. Roosevelt passes the first peace time draft September of 1940 i. Not popular and not many are happy about this 3. Lend Lease Act, 1941 a. Britain is running out of money b. Decide to lend/lease materials to them c. Roosevelt wins the fight to get Lend Lease to pass, works well in stopping the Germans d. Also tends to help the USSR by putting them onto our side 4. The Empire of Japan and the Attack on Pearl Harbor a. Was a two hour long battle b. It was a mistake from Japan not on midterm2 The Homefront During World War II I. The end of the Great Depression: Economic changes a. Were were out producing all of the other countries in the start of war b. Japanese were surprised how quickly we got into the mind set of war c. Spent more money on defense gross national product i. Made good money if you could create war material d. Increase in personal income e. Closure of the gap between rich and poor II. Changes for American women a. Women took over the jobs of men b. Women are needed war time materials c. Number of women in the workforce increased by 50% III. Civil liberties in wartime Japanese internment: why was it possible? a. History of discrimination b. Small population c. Geographically vulnerable d. Less culturally assimilated IV. Chain of events a. Creation of military zones and War Relocation Authority b. Curfew i. If you were Japanese c. Evacuation i. March 1942 order of evacuation war relocation authority ii. 48 hours to evacuate iii. can only take what you can carry V. Resettlement: Where do the Japanese go? VI. Confinement: Life in the camps a. Camps were bad VII. Role of the U.S. Supreme Court a. Hirabayashi V. U.S. (1943) b. Korematsu V. U.S. (1944) c. Endo V. U.S. VIII.