PSYC Ch 7
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Ch 7 Learning Defining Learning Learning vs. Innateness Innate Learned: relatively permanent behavior change due to experience Ex. if you don't get experience with calculus you’re not going to learn calc, or, if you don’t have experience riding a bike you won’t be able to learn to ride a bike How do we learn? Aristotle: associationism Contiguity: nearness in time and space Ex. thunder and lightning, table and chairs, cat and dog Note: not the same as continuity Frequency: how often something occurs Similarity: how alike things are Association: developing an understanding that certain events occur together Observation: learning by watching others Associative Learning Behaviorism: psychology should: 1. Be an objective science 2. Study behavior without reference to mental processes 2 types of associative learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Classical conditioning Type of learning in which one learned to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Before condition: food(UCS), salivation(UCR) Bell no response During conditioning: bell+food(UCS), salivation(UCR) After conditioning: bell(CS), salivation(CR) Acquisition: initial learning of the stimulus response relationship Timing (CS has to come before US) Higherorder conditioning: a new neutral stimulus can become a new CS Example US: pasiontate kiss > UR: sexal arousal CS: onion breath + US: passionate kiss > UR: sexual arousal CS: onion breath > CR: sexual arousal Extinction: diminished responding when the CS is no longer paired with the US Generalization: tendency to respond with the CR to stimuli similar to the CS Ex. Training: show turtle a picture of white bunny then zap it would get scared Testing: show turtle picture of white mouse and it will get scared Discrimination: learned ability to distinguish a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant stimuli Ex. Training: show turtle picture of white bunny and zap it scared Testing: show turtle picture of black bunny not scared Cognitive Processes Predictability 50% of time, tone is present alone then shock 50% of tine light accompanies tone then shock 100% of the time shock follows tone Bell is more reliable Biological Predispositions Taste as better CS for nausea (CR) than sight or sound Works even if the nausea response occurs hours after presentation of the CS Ex. once you get food poisoning you probably can’t eat that food again Animal and human sexual arousal in response to the color red Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: organism associates actions with consequences Action is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer Ex. potty training: give a dog a treat when it pees outside Action is diminished if followed by a punisher Ex. kid cursing: soap in the mouth Shaping: using reinforcers to gradually guide an animal’s action towards a desired behavior Successive approximation: reward responses that are closer to final desired behavior Reinforcers Person And contextdependent Ex. if you do your homework you get ice cream but if you don't like ice cream then it doesn't matter A reinforcer for one person might not be a reinforcer for another Positive reinforcement: strengthen response by following it with a pleasing stimulus Negative reinforcement: strengthen response by removing something undesirable Primary and secondary (conditioned) reinforcers Primary reinforcers: unlearned and innately satisfying Related to satisfaction of biological need Ex. food, sleep, shelter Secondary reinforcer: are associated with primary reinforcers to achieve result Ex. money (associated with food) Immediate and delayed feedback Partial (intermittent reinforcement schedules Fixedratio: reinforce behavior after certain number of responses Variableratio: reinforce behavior after unpredictable number of responses Fixedinterval: reinforce first response after fixed amount of time Variableinterval: reinforce first response after varying time interval Punishment Positive punishment: diminish response by following it with unpleasant stimulus Ex. soap in the mouth for bad language Negative punishment: diminish response by removing a desired stimulus Ex. Problems with physical punishment 1. Punishment behavior is suppressed, not forgotten 2. Punishment taches discrimination 3. Punishment can teach fear 4. Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness through modeling
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