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by: Kristen Pruett

PSYC Ch 7 Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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About this Document

General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Ch 7  Learning     Defining Learning  ­ Learning vs. Innateness  ­ Innate  ­ Learned: relatively permanent behavior change due to experience   ­ Ex. if you don't get experience with calculus you’re not going to learn  calc, or, if you don’t have experience riding a bike you won’t be able to  learn to ride a bike  ­ How do we learn?  ­ Aristotle: associationism  ­ Contiguity: nearness in time and space  ­ Ex. thunder and lightning, table and chairs, cat and dog  ­ Note: not the same as continuity  ­ Frequency: how often something occurs  ­ Similarity: how alike things are  ­ Association: developing an understanding that certain events occur together  ­ Observation: learning by watching others   Associative Learning   ­ Behaviorism: psychology should:  ­ 1. Be an objective science  ­ 2. Study behavior without reference to mental processes  ­ 2 types of associative learning  ­ Classical conditioning  ­ Operant conditioning  Classical conditioning  ­ Type of learning in which one learned to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events  ­ Before condition: food(UCS), salivation(UCR)  ­ Bell ­ no response  ­ During conditioning: bell+food(UCS), salivation(UCR)  ­ After conditioning: bell(CS), salivation(CR)  ­ Acquisition: initial learning of the stimulus ­ response relationship  ­ Timing (CS has to come before US)  ­ Higher­order conditioning: a new neutral stimulus can become a new CS  ­ Example  ­ US: pasiontate kiss ­> UR: sexal arousal  ­ CS: onion breath + US: passionate kiss ­> UR: sexual arousal  ­ CS: onion breath ­> CR: sexual arousal   ­ Extinction: diminished responding when the CS is no longer paired with the US  ­ Generalization: tendency to respond with the CR to stimuli similar to the CS  ­ Ex.   ­ Training: show turtle a picture of white bunny then zap it ­ would get  scared  ­ Testing: show turtle picture of white mouse and it will get scared  ­ Discrimination: learned ability to distinguish a conditioned stimulus and other irrelevant  stimuli   ­ Ex.  ­ Training: show turtle picture of white bunny and zap it ­ scared  ­ Testing: show turtle picture of black bunny ­ not scared  ­ Cognitive Processes  ­ Predictability  ­ 50% of time, tone is present alone ­ then shock  ­ 50% of tine light accompanies tone ­ then shock  ­ 100% of the time shock follows tone  ­ Bell is more reliable  ­ Biological Predispositions  ­ Taste as better CS for nausea (CR) than sight or sound  ­ Works even if the nausea response occurs hours after presentation of the  CS  ­ Ex. once you get food poisoning you probably can’t eat that food  again  ­ Animal and human sexual arousal in response to the color red  Operant Conditioning  ­ Operant conditioning: organism associates actions with consequences  ­ Action is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer   ­ Ex. potty training: give a dog a treat when it pees outside  ­ Action is diminished if followed by a punisher  ­ Ex. kid cursing: soap in the mouth  ­ Shaping: using reinforcers to gradually guide an animal’s action towards a desired  behavior   ­ Successive approximation: reward responses that are closer to final  desired behavior  ­ Reinforcers  ­ Person And context­dependent  ­ Ex. if you do your homework you get ice cream ­ but if you don't  like ice cream then it doesn't matter  ­ A reinforcer for one person might not be a reinforcer for another  ­ Positive reinforcement: strengthen response by following it with a  pleasing stimulus  ­ Negative reinforcement: strengthen response by removing something  undesirable   ­ Primary and secondary (conditioned) reinforcers  ­ Primary reinforcers: unlearned and innately satisfying  ­ Related to satisfaction of biological need  ­ Ex. food, sleep, shelter  ­ Secondary reinforcer: are associated with primary reinforcers to achieve  result  ­ Ex. money (associated with food)  ­ Immediate and delayed feedback  ­ Partial (intermittent reinforcement schedules  ­ Fixed­ratio: reinforce behavior after certain number of responses  ­ Variable­ratio: reinforce behavior after unpredictable number of responses  ­ Fixed­interval: reinforce first response after fixed amount of time   ­ Variable­interval: reinforce first response after varying time interval  ­ Punishment  ­ Positive punishment: diminish response by following it with unpleasant  stimulus  ­ Ex. soap in the mouth for bad language  ­ Negative punishment: diminish response by removing a desired stimulus  ­ Ex.   ­ Problems with physical punishment  ­ 1. Punishment behavior is suppressed, not forgotten  ­ 2. Punishment taches discrimination  ­ 3. Punishment can teach fear  ­ 4. Physical punishment may increase aggressiveness through modeling   


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