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Physical Geography Chapter 8-11 Notes

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by: Megan Hanson

Physical Geography Chapter 8-11 Notes GEOG 1414

Marketplace > University of Minnesota Duluth > Geography > GEOG 1414 > Physical Geography Chapter 8 11 Notes
Megan Hanson

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These are the notes for physical geography 8-11
Physical Geography
Tongxin Zhu
Class Notes
physical geography notes chapter 8 9 10 11
25 ?




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"If Megan isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!"

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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Hanson on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1414 at University of Minnesota Duluth taught by Tongxin Zhu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at University of Minnesota Duluth.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
3/15/16 CHAPTER 8  Biogeography – examines the distribution of plants and animals  Ecosystem – a self-sustaining association of living plants and animals and their nonliving physical environment o Energy and matter flows through o Food chain – the linkage of who feeds on whom – more complicated chains are called food webs o Primary producers – plants - use sunlight, water, and CO2 to create carbohydrates  Support all other organisms – consumers  Herbivores – plants  Carnivores – meat  Omnivores – both  Decomposers – break down remains of plants and animals  Energy loss – energy transfer efficiency  Photosynthesis – H2O + CO2 + light energy = -CHOH- + O2  Respiration - -CHOH- + O2 = CO2 + H2O + chemical energy 3/22/16  Terrestrial biomes o Biomes – different types of plant communities in differing environments  (1) Forrest, (2) woodland, (3) shrub-land, (4) grassland, (5) desert, (6) tundra  Forrest o Tropical rain forest  Different layers of plants  Found in tropical rainforest climate  Largest diversity of species in any biomes o Tropical monsoon forest  Fewer layers  Found in tropical monsoon climate  Dry season results in a deciduous forest – sheds its leaves  An open canopy allows for more development in the lower forest area o Tropical evergreen forest  Less precipitation, less layers  Associated with humid subtropical climate  Vegetation – coniferous trees (needle-leaf and broadleaf)  Little natural forest remains due to agricultural development o Mid-latitude deciduous forest  Tall and dense canopy in the summer (MN tree land)  Sheds leaves in cold weather o Boreal forest (Tiger)  Typically fund in subarctic climate  Not very diverse  A few species of tall cone-shaped evergreen coniferous (NE U.S. and Canada area)  Deep share means very limited shrubs and herbs o Mediterranean forest/woodland  Develops in the Mediterranean climate (summer dry/winter wet)  Trees have adapted to dry, hot temperatures by producing small, hard, thick leaves that minimize leather loss  Woodland/Shrub-land o Savanna biome  Tropical savanna climate (dry winter/wet summer)  Changes from woodland to grassland (thorn-trees) with existing dryness  Adaptions to dryness includes deciduous habitat and small leaves or thorns  Trees are widely spaced and area is prone to fires in dry season  Grassland – mid-latitude and subtropical zones o Tall-grass prairie  Wetter conditions o Short-grass steppe  Dryer conditions  Semi-arid subtype – dry continental  Desert biome o Desert and demi-desert o Tropical to mid-latitude zones – many areas with little vegetation, but when they do – it is drought resistant  Tundra Biome o Fast growing cycle o High latitudes and altitudes o Low herbs, dwarf shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens o Light littleness 3/24/16 Soils:  Parent materials – mineral materials that can weather (through physical and chemical processes) into soil  Organic matter: o Litter – still recognizable (leaves) o Humus o The difference between the two is the degree of transformation o Litter becomes humus over time  Composition: o 25% water, 5% organic, 45% inorganic, 25% air o Varies from day to day  Profiles: o Soil is studied not just at the surface, but at the depth o From surface to bedrock o Each layer = soil horizon  Horizons (from top to bottom) o O. Organic o A. Topsoil o E. Zone of removal of materials o B. Zone of accumulation of materials o C. Weathered materials o R. Un-weathered bedrock o Note: this is a typical soil horizon – some soils are missing some layers  Eluviation – material is removed from a horizon (exit)  Illuviation – material is moved into a horizon (in)  Soil color: o Dark brown to black indicates humus  Ex. black prairie soils o Red or yellow indicates iron  Ex. moist, tropical soils tend to be red o White flecks or spots indicate calcium  Soil texture: the percentage or content of silt, sand, and clay (particle size)  Acidity and alkalinity o Described by pH  pH measures the number of hydrogen ions  Strongly acidic (4-5)  Acidic (5-6)  Neutral (6-8)  Alkaline (8-9)  Strongly alkaline (>9)  Porosity – voids control the flow of water and nutrients o Translocation o Leached  Ion – atom or atoms that have an electrical charge o Positive = cation (ca++, K+, Na+)—nutrients o Negative = anion (Cl-) o Particles of clay – negatively charged o Negatively charged and attract positively charged ions – elements required by plants  Soil forming process: o Deposition o Addition o Removal: erosion and translocation (only the change of position) o Transformation (chemical properties change)


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