New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EUH 4241 Week 11 Notes

by: Emily Johnson

EUH 4241 Week 11 Notes EUH 4241

Marketplace > Florida State University > History > EUH 4241 > EUH 4241 Week 11 Notes
Emily Johnson

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

In-Class Notes from 3/29 and 3/31
The Holocaust
Robert Gellately
Class Notes
The Holocaust, EUH 4241, Florida State University
25 ?




Popular in The Holocaust

Popular in History

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Johnson on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EUH 4241 at Florida State University taught by Robert Gellately in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at Florida State University.


Reviews for EUH 4241 Week 11 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/04/16
Operation Reinhard: Part 2 (March 29)   German Terms  ● Aktion or Einsatz  ● Reinhardt, Reinhard; Reinhart  ○ Mass murder of Polish and other Jews  Leader of Aktion Reinhard  ● Odilo Globocnik (1904­45)  ○ Former Gauleiter of Austria  Operation Reinhard  ● Includes 3 Death Camps   ● Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka  ○ Chelmno, not a “Reinhard” camp; similar; began with a gas van   ■ For Jews from the Wartegau   ■ How many vans were there?  Mobilization  ● November 1, 1941; Construction began at Belzec and Chelmno  ● Auschwitz from June 1940  ○ Auschwitz­Birkenau     ● All four camps in the General Gouvernement   ○ Similar in layout and methods  ○ All grew out of T4, even using machines and personnel   Belzec  ● Small in size, few buildings  ●  Built by T4 experts; fixed death chamber  ● Completed Dec 1941; first used Feb/March of 1942  ○ First used bottled Carbon Monoxide, then car engines  ● SS commandant and background  ○ Christian Worth  ● Death toll?  ○ 500,000  Sobibor  ● More elaborate than Belzec  ● Built March 1942  ● 3 Gas chambers: 200 people killed at once  ● Tank/truck engines to produce carbon monoxide  ○ Takes 10­30 minutes   ● 3 Camps*  ○ 1: housing and workshops  ○ 2: reception with tube connecting to 3  ○ 3: extermination site  *”camp” a contradiction, no actual barracks to live in. People come here to die.     ● Mid­April 1942: first gassings  ● May 5­July 31: kill 90­100,000; expands from 4 to 6 gas chambers; functioned  until Oct 20, 1943  ● Murdered: 150,000 to 200,000  ● Resistance at the very end    Treblinka: the ultimate killing operation  ● May/early June 1942, running from July as “death camp” to October 1943  ○ Like the others, closed down as nearly all the Jews in the GG were gone.   Was no “camp”  ● Like the others, there was nowhere to stay or hold people  ● July/Aug 1942  ○ Arrivals overwhelmed the killing facilities and for a while were shot  ● No “surgical operation”  New Commandant  ● Franz Stangl (in power Sept. 1, 1942­Aug 1943)  ● Cleans up disorganization  ● Transforms into more efficient murder machine  One Executioner  ● Franz Stangl (1908­71)  ● T4, then Sobibor and Treblinka  ● Book: Gitta Sereny, ​ Into that Darkness: An Examination of Conscience   Treblinka  ● 10 gas chamber  ○ Capacity to kill 3800 people at the same time  On Arrival  ● Prisoners told in transit camp   ○ “Heading to labor camps”   ○ “For hygienic reasons, must take a shower”  ○ “Have clothes disinfected”  Camp’s Purpose Disguised  ● 1. SS and Ukrainian living area  ● 2. Reception area  ● 3. Tube connected to 4.   ● 4. Extermination area  Himmler Visit  ● February/March 1943 to end Reinhard  ● 1,650,000 of 1.7 million in GG already killed  ● Auschwitz­Birkenau had increased killing capacity  ● Close down 3 camps  “Special Action 1005”  ● Heydrich had decided March 1942  ● Erase crimes, exhume and cremate bodies  ● March 1943, Himmler reiterated  Resistance: Why so little?  ● Precursors to resistance:  ○ 1. Clear target  ○ 2. Relatively secure niches  [to avoid informers]  ○ 3. Willingness to act illegally [Germans issued reprisals against criminals]  ○ 4. Chance of success [little chance if unarmed]  Resistance  ● Various schemes in summer 1943, escape or destroy  ● Why so difficult to resist?  ○ Failures and heavy reprisals  Uprising in Sobibor  ● October 14: also burnt facilities  ● Prisoners began secretly killing more SS (11 officers)  ● About 300 escape; SS reinforcement search area  ● Local Polish population cooperate: nowhere to run  ○ Some treated well  ○ Others made it back home (ghetto), just to be sent back  ○ Polish underground kills them too  Uprising Treblinka  ● August 1943  ○ 750 escape  ● Altogether 120­150 prisoners from Sobibor and Treblinka survived the war  Himmler Reaction  ● Fear example might follow in other camps  ● Lublin district camps have 42,000­45,000 prisoners  ● SS assembles massive force  ○ Strike quickly and kill them all  Operation Erntefest  ● October/November 1943  ○ Comb through camps kill all   ● Majdanek: early November  ● One day, shot 18,000 there; marked the end of Reinhard   Few Perpetrators  ● 20­35 Germans direct  ● 90­130 Ukrainian guards   ● 700­1000 Jewish slaves  Recent German Judicial Investigation Shows   ● Chelmno: 4 Survivors, 3 testified  ● Belzec: 1 Survivor   ● Sobibor: 100 escaped; 50 made it to war’s end  ● Treblinka: 40 escaped   Concentrated Killing: March 1942­March 1943  ● March 1942, 75­80% of those killed in the Holocaust  ○ Still alive  ● March 1943: only 20­25% who were to be killed  ○ Still living  Odilo Globocnik Report  ● Jan 5, 1942 ­­ correct date (from content of report) 1944  ● Writes Himmler from Italy  ○ Balance sheet of horror, wrapped in language of successful business  operation  Memory  ● Everything was done to cover­up the crime  ● So few survivors  ● Little testimony or memory  ● Today in Treblinka    Operation Reinhard: Some final points (3/31)   Operation Reinhard  ● Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka  ● Chelmno, not “Reinhard” camp; similar; began with gas van  ● Where were they located?  ○ All in General Gouvernement (part of former Poland)  All were “death camps”  ● Produced nothing but death and “booty” stolen from the dead  ● The “economic side” of the murder, real, but should not be exaggerated (Jews  were not killed solely for monetary reasons)  Deadlier than Auschwitz   ● Chelmno 152,000  ● Belzec 500,000 to 600,000  ● Sobibor 150,000 to 200,000  ● Treblinka 750,000 to 870,000  ● Auschwitz was spread out over a longer period; these killings were highly  concentrated   3 Death Camps (in total)  ● 20­35 Germans Direct  ● 90­130 Ukrainian guards  ● 700­1000 JEwish slaves  ● 1.7 million victims; how many survivors?   ○ Chelmno: 4  ○ Belzec: 1  ○ Sobibor: 100 escape, 50 make it to the end  ○ Treblinka: 40 escape, unknown how many actually make it to the end  *Not a “surgical operation” or “industrialized murder”  “Jew Hunting”  ● Wave 1: Killing/Deportation  ○ June 1942: Ghetto Dissolved; (450) and July (1800) deported to Belzec  ○ Young men sent to labor camo; others shot in the street  ○ Grabowski: testimony, 52  ○ How to find the rest?  ■ Long­term hunt  The Cover­up  ● Special action 1005 (March 1942): repeated by Himmler on visit in 1943  ● We know who was in charge; no written orders  ● “Abascherung”  ○ Experimented with burning a large quantity of bodies/ where and how to,  what to do with ashes.  ○ Sites leveled, farms, etc in order to find a place to hide them  ● Remains not left in peace even after burial  ○ Desecration continued until Polish Government created memorials  What does Operation Reinhard tell us about the Holocaust?  Auschwitz   Key differences between Auschwitz and Operation Reinhard  ● Reinhard “camps” were not camps at all  ○ Not intended for anyone to stay there or work  ○ They were large killing sites only  ○ Auschwitz was more complex  ● Operation Reinhard killed primarily Polish Jews  ○ A few from elsewhere  ○ Auschwitz killed some Polish Jews, but mainly non­Polish Jews  Auschwitz I  ● Opened June 1940: Founded as an “ordinary” camp  ● Located on former Polish territory  ○ Wish to Germanize the town and area  Mission 1: Terror  ● Terrorize occupied Poland  ○ Hold opposition leaders  ○ Assorted “social outsiders”  ○ POWs  Mission 2: Exploitation  ● SS wished to entice Private Industry  ○ Promise of cheap labor and visions of new German­dominated East  ■ All the way to Ural Mountains  Heinrich Himmler  ● Head SS: Head Security Police (Sipo)  ● Head of Concentration Camp system  ● Many more titles and ambitions  ○ Especially: racial reordering of the East  Rudolf Hoess  ● Notorious Camp Komandant  ● Pronounced “Hess” but spelled Hoess or Höss  Himmler’s Dreams  ● A system of slaves  ○ 1) to finance the SS  ○ 2) for the new order in the East  ● Works out: Generalplan Ost (GPO) ­­ return to it later  ● Bring private industry to the camps  Himmler & Private Industry  ● Offers I.G. Farben (Chemicals)  ○ 4th largest corporation in the world  ○ Offered cheap labor (Feb 1941) and visions of prosperous East  I.G. Farben April 1941  ● Says of its plan for the camp:   ○ It fulfills a high moral duty to mobilize all its resources for the cornerstone  of a powerful and healthy Germandom in the East.:  ● 1942­43: Other firms move in   SS Vision  ● To create on this spot an exemplary eastern settlement ­­ esp. To settling  qualified German men and women  ● Auschwitz III at Monowitz  ● II and III equidistant from I  Exploitation v Extermination  ● Farben Plant to make “Buna”  ○ Not 1 ounce of rubber ever produced  ● Worked people to death  ○ Tens of thousands died  Mission 3: Mass Murder  ● Hoess (post­war) Trial Testimony  ○ Says: Himmler has said to him in summer 1941  ■ “The Jews are the sworn enemies of the German people and must  be eradicated”  ■ “Every Jew that we can lay our hands on it to be destroyed now  during the war, without exception”  ● Himmler modified that later to exclude Jews who could work  Adolf Eichmann  ● “A short time later”  ● With Hoess discussed ways and means of making killing more efficient  ○ Gas vans were inadequate  ■ Would “need” a faster/more reliable gas than CO used in Reinhard  camps  Eichmann to Hoess  ● Avoid creating new buildings  ● Convert farmhouse (Bunker I)  ● Zyklon B used in Auschwitz I  ○ Experiments early September 1941 on Communists and Red Army POWs  ○ Zyklon B a disinfectant chemical; selected in place of CO  Hoess  ● Unsure when Jews began arriving  ○ September 1941 or January 1942  ● In fact from mid­Feb 1942  ○ Seems that “Selections” began  Day Auschwitz became a Death Camp  ● May 12, 1942: first transport sent directly to the gas chambers  ○ J. Garlinski,Fighting Auschwitz  ● Other dates given  ● The bodies were burned  Auschwitz II (Auschwitz­Birkenau)  ● Decision to establish: October 1, 1941  ● Construction in stages:  ○ To hold 200,000 POWs  Himmler Visit Summer 1942  ● Birkenau (Auschwitz II)  ● Transports grow  ● “Need” to enlarge killing capacity  ● By 1943: Center for mass killings in Europe  Steinbacher, 105  ● “Vast amounts of money and valuables vanished into the pockets of the SS men  at Auschwitz, who helped themselves unscrupulously despite threats to the death  penalty”  ○ Tells us: that the Holocaust was not about money. If it was about money,  they would not have been punished.  ○ Any executions ever carried out? No.  Auschwitz II Birkenau  ● In 1942, began building 4 new gas chambers  ○ Each included an undressing room and a gas chamber  ○ Both underground and crematorium for incineration the bodies  Himmler visits Summer 1942  ● Also relayed order to exhume and burn bodies  ● “Special Action 1005” (had begun March 1942)  Death Toll   ● 1.3 million, 90% Jews  ● Soviet POWs: 15,000  ● Roma and Sinti: 22,000   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.