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General Biology

by: Kara Fields

General Biology BIO 1050 - 02

Kara Fields
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General Biology
Dr. Whelan
Class Notes
Biology, Meiosis




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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Fields on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1050 - 02 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Whelan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan Meiosis Sexual Reproduction and Basic Genetics I. Sexual reproduction A. Background a. What characteristic do offspring of asexual reproduction have?  Identical to parent. b. What characteristic do offspring of sexual reproduction have?  A unique combination of traits and unique genes.  c. Describe the number of chromosomes human cells have & how they are  arranged in pairs.  In humans, all cells (except sperm and egg cells) have 46  chromosomes.  = 23 pairs.  d. Describe homologous chromosomes.  2 chromosomes of a matching pair.  e. These 23 pairs of chromosomes include 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes. i) What are autosomes?  Any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.  ii) What are sex chromosomes?  A chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism,  typically one of two kinds.  X or Y  =X and X or X and Y Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan iii) What sex chromosomes do human females have?  Are they  homologous chromosomes?  X and Y  No, they are not.  iv) What sex chromosomes do human males have?  Are they homologous  chromosomes?  X and X  No, they are not.  f. If a cell is diploid, what does that mean?  A cell has a set of homologous chromosomes.  i) What is the abbreviation for diploid?  2n ii) What human cells are diploid?  All except gametes (=sperm and egg cells) iii) How many chromosomes do diploid human cells contain?  46 total chromosomes.  g. If a cell is haploid, what does that mean?  A cell has only one of each chromosome type.  i) What is the abbreviation for haploid?  n Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan ii) What human cells are haploid?  Gametes (=sperm and egg cells) iii) How many chromosomes do haploid human cells contain?  23 total.  h. What are gametes?  Sperm or egg cells.  i. What are the two types of cell division in eukaryotes?    1) Mitosis    2) Meiosis i) What types of cells does meiosis create?  Cell division used to make sperm and eggs only. ii) What happens if there are errors during meiosis?  Mistakes can lead to disorders like Down Syndrome.  iii) Describe meiosis.  The process that produces haploid gametes in diploid organisms.  iv)  How many cell divisions occur during meiosis and how many cells are produced?  2 divisions of meiosis. 4 haploid cells. Of which 2 contain a single  copy of one of the original chromosomes and the other 2 contain a  single copy of the other chromosome.  j. What is a life cycle? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan  The series of changes in the life of organisms, including  reproduction.  i) What is a zygote?  A fertilized egg.  ii) Describe the life cycle of a human.  Adult females and adult male= diploid cell  Meiosis= egg and sperm= haploid cell  Fertilization= fertilized egg= diploid cell  Mitosis= offspring B. Origins of genetic variation a. What are 2 reasons why offspring from sexual reproduction are genetically  different from their parents & each other?    1) Random Fertilization    2) Crossing Over b. Describe what we mean by random fertilization.  Multiple eggs and lots of sperm produced   Only one egg and one sperm unite   Random which egg and which sperm it is  c. What is crossing over?  Exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. i) What is the result of crossing over?  Each chromosome becomes a mixture of information from mom  and dad.  Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan ii) Why is crossing over important?  Produces gene combinations different from those carried by the  parents’ chromosomes.  C. Twins a. How are fraternal (dizygotic) twins formed? Egg and Sperm  Zygote  Embryo  Baby 50% Identical.  Egg and Sperm  Zygote  Embryo  Baby            Just like having any other siblings.  b. How are identical (monozygotic) twins formed? Egg and Sperm  Zygote  Embryo  Embryo splits  Two Embryos  Two Babies 100% genetically identical II. Basic Genetics A. Chromosomes and alleles a. Do both copies of our genes code for the same version of a trait?  No. Different version of a trait.  b. What is an allele?  Each different version of a trait.  c. Give an example of a gene and an allele.  Gender  Allele Hair Color  Brown or Blonde Eye Color Blue or Green d. Alleles can be either ___Dominant___ or __Recessive__. e. What does it mean for an allele to be dominant?  Version of trait fully shows. f. What does it mean for an allele to be recessive? Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan  Version of trait can be hidden.  g. What is homozygous dominant?  2 Dominant Alleles.  h. What is heterozygous?  1 Dominant, 1 Recessive Allele. i. What is homozygous recessive?  2 Recessive Alleles.  B. Crosses a. What is a monohybrid cross?  A cross between parents that differ in only one characteristic.  (e.g. color) b. What is a genotype?  An organisms’ genetic makeup.  (e.g. Aa) c. What is a phenotype?  The trait an organism shows  (e.g. red) ­ Physical traits  d. Explain the P generation, 1  generation, and 2  generation Alleles  Alleles P RR rr F1 All Rr Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan F2 Rr Rr C. Describe how to make a Punnett Square (i.e., how many squares, what goes in each  column of the square, etc.) to solve monohybrid crosses. Rr X Rr 1 Allelle from Mom 1 Allele from Dad Dominant is CAPITAL letter Recessive is lower case letter  a. Draw a Punnett Square for a cross between two heterozygous individuals. R r  R        RR      Rr r       Rr       rr b. If purple flowers are dominant to white flowers in the example above, what  phenotypes are present in the 2  offspring and in what proportions?  Phenotype= ¾ purple, ¼ white c. What are the genotypes and their proportions from this example cross?  Genotype= ¼ RR, ½ Rr, ¼ rr III. Human Genetics A. Background a. Who discovered the basic patterns of inheritance?  Mendel  Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan b. To what kind of human traits do Mendel’s principles apply? Dominant Recessive  Cleft Chin Non­cleft Chin Unattached Earlobes  Attached Earlobes Widow’s Peak Straight Hairline B. How are many human disorders controlled?  By a single gene, an autosome.  C. What does it mean for a condition to be recessive?  To be dominant?  Two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the  disease or trait to develop.   An abnormal gene from only one parent. If you inherit it, you can  get the disease.  a. Are most disorders recessive or dominant?  Recessive b. Who are carriers?  What possible genotype(s) can a carrier have?  Have 1 recessive allele for disease, but no symptoms.  c. List examples of recessive disorders.  Sickle Cell Anemia  Cystic Fibrosis  PKU d. Describe cystic fibrosis  Effects the exocrine glands.   Often resulting in respiratory infection Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan  Hereditary disorder.  e. What happens when 2 carriers mate?  For both being heterozygous.   25% chance they will get it.   50% chance they will be carriers.   25% chance they won’t have it at all or be a carrier.  D. Dominant disorders a. Are dominant alleles necessarily better than the corresponding recessive allele?  They are not better. They are more likely to occur and be passed down.  b. Are dominant alleles necessarily more common than the corresponding  recessive allele?  Isn’t always the case. Whether or not a trait is common has to do with how many copies of that gene version are in the population.  c. Why are lethal dominant disorders rare?  Lethal Dominant disorders are rare because…  Those affiliated usually die before reproducing (including  heterozygous).  d. How can a lethal dominant disorder get passed on from generation to  generation?  Can remain if it doesn’t kill until after person has kids.  e. List examples of dominant disorders.  Neurofibromatosis type 1  Huntington’s Disease Biol 1050 Spring 2016 Dr. Whelan f. Describe Huntington’s disease ­ A hereditary disease marked by degeneration of the brain cells and  causing chorea and progressive dementia. Ex…  1 (mom) with disorder.  50% chance will.  50% chance will not   1 (dad) with homozygous dominant allele.  Every single one of his kids will get the disease. 


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