Pre-Modern World History Notes
Pre-Modern World History Notes HIST-1111
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST-1111 at Augusta State University taught by Sandrine Catris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Pre-Mod World Civilization in Global Studies at Augusta State University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Pre-Modern World History Week 11 Notes Monday: Edict of Milan (313 AD) The conversion of Constantine stopped the persecution of Christians. During this time there was more than one emperor. Maximus Paia (eastern emperor) continued the persecution of Christians until he was defeated by Licinius. In 324 AD Constantine defeated Licinius and became the sole emperor. This started the end of Christian persecution. The Christian Empire Christianity spread to the hinterlands of Africa and Southwest Asia: Language of the Christian churches: They used the Coptic language, which is an ancient Egyptian language. Nubia and Ethiopia developed Christian-based scripts. They also used Syriac, which is an offshoot of Aramaic that joined Antioch to Mesopotamia. Georgia and Armenia become Christian. 325 AD: The Council of Nicea The council of Nicea was a group of scholars who built more of a foundation for Christianity. They settled the discussion of the trinity and the nature of Christ. They formed a creed: What the Bible included and didn’t include. A balance of the trinity in one Supreme Being. Settled a date for Easter. This led to the persecution of Christians who refused to agree with the council’s beliefs. Establishment of the church. Origins of Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantine Empire Byzantines considered themselves Roman or Hellen. They did not call themselves Byzantine. In 330 AD Constantine built Constantinople in ancient Byzantium. The death of Constantine (337 AD) lead to the division of the East and West Rome Empire. Constantine had held the empire together with his strength and charisma. In 337 Constantius II becomes Emperor of Rome. East and West Rome are permanently divided. In 361 AD Julian tried to revert to the worship of the Roman gods but fails. Rome is a religiously intolerant empire. The Olympics become prohibited in 396 AD due to violence, celebration of the Greek gods, nudity, etc. The Fall of Rome in the West A nomadic invasion destroys Western Rome. Eastern Rome refused to aid Western Rome. Because of the fragmented empire, it was an easy target. Rome used diplomacy, bribes, and military to ward off the nomadic invaders. Rome falls in 476. Barbarians? Goths (the so called barbarians) in Gaul were invited by Rome to come and help them with the unrest. Goths served as Roman Militia in Gaul. Goths were a semi-nomadic group of Eastern tribes. Some Gauls were Christian. Rome thought that God was punishing them. Roman and cultural influence remained. Fear of the Huns continued. The Roman Catholic Church is established. Rome became a spiritual city. The patriarch in Rome claimed supreme authority. Separation between Eastern and Western Christianity. After the political fall, Rome remained the spiritual center. Justinian’s Rule Justinian was the Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire from 527-575 AD. Procopius, Secret Histories: “Procopius of Caesarea was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima. Accompanying the Roman general Belisarius in the wars of the Emperor Justinian, he became the principal historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars, the Buildings of Justinian and the celebrated Secret History. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient Western world.” Justinian was successful over Persia. He took back Rome, Spain, and North Africa from the nomadic people. Hagia Sophia was the seat of Eastern Christianity. Justinian codified Roman law so that it became equal for all people, compiled, and organized. Justinian was cruel when fighting heresies. Under his rule, Christians who did not agree with the State’s beliefs are persecuted. There were challenges to the orthodoxy of the Establishment Church. Sasanian Persia A religiously tolerant empire. An empire at a crossroads: Central Asian, Greek, and Indian culture. Zoroastrianism. Jews compiled Babylonian Talmud. Diverse blend of cultures: Asian, Greek, and Indian. Nestorian Christians were considered a heresy by the Orthodox Church of Rome. Persian emperors thought of themselves as kings of Eran and Ari-Iran. Wednesday: Sogdians on the Silk Road Middle men, connected Rome and China, maintained the road, interpreted religious text. Provided a way for universalistic religious movement to flow. Hub of cross-cultural contact. Sogdian language was used. Mediators between culture, commerce, and religion. Merchant travelers. Universal Culture of Buddhism Buddhism started between India and Nepal. Buddhist commodities traveled around the trade routes. Many monks traveled along the trade routes to obtain the sacred texts. Political Disunity in China North and South China are divided in several small kingdoms. Six dynasties claim to be the rightful ruler—this causes a civil war. Wei Dynasty: Kept imperial standards Urbanized army Forced labor Made the government more “Chinese.” Kept tradition. Religion in “China” Not quite China yet, it was disunited. th They didn’t call themselves China until the 20 century AD. Called themselves as people of a specific dynasty. Buddhism changed in China: Translated Buddhist text to Chinese. Borrowed from Daoism, Confucianism, and Chinese tradition. Tried to make Buddhism fit in. Used Buddhism to claim political legitimacy. Different forms of Buddhism in different regions. Buddhism also influenced Daoism: 2 new Daoist traditions: External Alchemy and Internal Alchemy. Religious Change in South Asia The Hindu transformation: Vegetarian Influence during chaos Religion of Agrarian culture Changed by Buddhism and Jainism Group of religions that claim common ancestor of the Vedic text 3 deities: 1) Brahma, 2) Vishnu, 3) Shiva Influenced each other. Makes other religions less prominent because of its adaptability. Atma: Eternal Self. Monotheistic, more central deities. Bhakti: personal devotion to a deity, religious rituals. Culture and Ideology Instead of Empire Read slides from section 20, week 11. Bantu People as a World Apart The Bantu people were in Southern/West Africa. Vision of men and nature were closely connected: Worships nature Ancestoral spirits Diviners (rituals) and charms (cure, success, etc.) Bantu filled more than half of the African landmass. Their religion wasn’t universal because it could only be practiced by themselves. Mesoamerica as a World Apart Teotihuacan: “Teotihuacan, also written Teotihuacán, was an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico 30 miles northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.” Not much political power: Cultural and economic influence. City burned by invaders and it doesn’t get rebuilt. Friday: Mayans No great metropolis, but many villages connected by religion and culture. They had a common language and the villages were also connected by that and trade. Kingdoms consisted of city-states and large states. They were farmers and they excelled in mathematics. They were talented builders. Their religion required blood sacrifice of both humans and animals. There was warfare between kingdoms. Concluding Remarks Christianity at first was persecuted and then accepted once Constantine was converted. This happened between 100&600 AD. Council of Nicea established in 325 AD. Those who didn’t agree with the council were persecuted. Buddhism takes hold in Central Asia and Asia and it adapted to its environment and spread to other cultures, so it became a universal religion. Religions spread by trade routes—the followers travel and share. Bantu culture in Southern Africa. Mayan culture in Mesoamerica. Common culture, not religion* Religious tolerance in the Sasanian Empire.