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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Christopher Lee on Sunday February 1, 2015. The One Day of Notes belongs to SOC210 at a university taught by Dr. Peralta in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 113 views.
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I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Do people with less education commit more violent crimes Independent variable level of education Concept quotviolent crimequot Dependent variable number of physical assaults committed Dependent variable number of murders committed Dependent variable number of armed robberies committed 1 Is it okay for the US government to mandate legally that all citizens participate in the decennial census 2 Should companies be able to require employees to participate in survey research about workrelated issues 1 page of notes for test on Oct 20th 50 points Chapter 5 sampling distributions study good Research design alternatives Units of analysis the level of social life on which a research question is focused such as individuals groups towns or nations eve at which conclusions can be drawn Determined by an interest in exploring or explaining a speci c phenomenon Example City interest in explaining crime rate Units of observation the cases about which measures actually are obtained in a sample Leve at which data is collected What we look at to make observations Determined by the method by which observations have been selected Example People in a survey When they are the same Do universities that have a campus police department have fewer crimes on campus U of A Universities U of 0 University statistics Example when they are different Are traditional marriages more successful than nontraditional marriages U of A Marriage type or couple U of O Husbands and wives Ecological fallacy An error in reasoning in which incorrect conclusions about individuallevel processes are drawn from grouplevel data Causal conclusions should correspond to units of analysis Reductionist fallacy An error in reasoning that occurs when incorrect conclusions about grouplevel processes are based on individuallevel data Time order 0 A criterion for establishing a causal relation between two variables 0 Cause IV must occur before the presumed effect DV Crosssectional research design 0 A study in which data are collected at one point in time Criteria for when crosssectional designs can increase con dence in time order causal effects 1 Independent variable is xed at some point prior to the variation in the dependent variable eg education was completed before current job 2 Reliable selfreports of sequence of events eg tragic life event precedes criminal activity Crosssectional research design A study in which data are collected at one point in time Different participants of various ages are compared at one point in time to determine agerelated differences Group one 20yearold participants Group two 40yearold participants Group three 60yearold participants Criteria for when crosssectional designs can increase con dence in time order causal effects 1 Independent variable is xed at some point prior to the variation in the dependent variable eg education was completed before current job 2 Reliable selfreports of sequence of events eg tragic life event precedes criminal activity 3 Measures are based on timeordered records eg record of when criminal activity occurred is documented 4 Value of the dependent variable was similar for all cases prior to the treatment programpolicy eg knowing all participants were alcoholics before receiving alcoholic treatment Longitudinal designs A study in which data are collected at two or more points in time The same participants are studied at various ages to determine agerelated changes Study one participants are 20 years old Study two participants are 40 years old Study three participants are 60 years old Data are collected from the same individuals the panel at 2 or more points in time Issues 1 Expensive 2 Participants drop out Repeated crosssectional design Goal is to determine whether a population has changed over time eg political views concerns change in population as a whole Over time some people leave and others enter Eventbased design Cohort individuals with a common starting point Followup samples are selected from same cohort 0 Examples birth seniority school 0 Can be type of crosssectional or longitudinal design Helps to reveal importance of social or cultural context that different cohorts expenenced Causal effect quantitative nomothetic perspective when variation in one phenomenon an independent variable usually leads to variation in another phenomenon dependent variable Ceteris paribus quotother things being equalquot Alows us to isolate the effect of one variable on another Causal effect qualitative idiographic perspective when a series of concrete events throughts or actions result in a particular event or individual outcome lnvolves narrative reasoning and a quotholisticquot understanding of a particular outcome 0 Outcome viewed as part of larger set of interrelated circumstances Context is taken into account Five criteria for evaluating causal effects 1 Association variation in the independent variable is related to variation in the dependent variable 0 Example religious af liation protestant v catholic and presidential vote dem v rep 2 Time order 3 Nonspuriousness when a relationship between two variables in not due to a variation in a third variable 0 Correlation does not prove causation 4 A causal mechanism is identi ed Helps us understand why a causal link exists 0 Family poverty gtow parentchild attachmentgt juvenile delinquency 5 The context in which a causal effect occurs is speci ed Helps us understand when or under what conditions it occurs i When relationships among variables differ across geographic units or social settings there is a contextual effect
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