SOC 271 Week 1 notes
SOC 271 Week 1 notes Soc 271A
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 271A at University of Washington taught by April Fernandes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Social deviance and social control in Sociology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Week 1 Lecture 1 Monday, March 28, 2016 Email for the class is firstname.lastname@example.org Course Questions What is deviance? How can we understand deviance and how it is defined? - Theory Is this deviant?- Drugs, disability, mental illness, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, and crime and legality How do we control deviance and deviants?- Formal social control, informal social control, and stigma Banksy and non-sanctioned art and social commentary Graffiti as art and social commentary Week 1 Lecture 2 Wednesday, March 30, 2016 What is deviance and how is it defined? How do you know when something is deviant? Who are the deviants? Who decides what is deviant? Why is studying deviance important? Google says… Red amongst green apples, piercings, drugs, incarceration, etc Definitions 1. Statistical definition Outliers: different from the average Ex: homosexual, LGBTQ, extreme poverty or wealth, minorities, left-handed, red hair 2. Religious or moral definitions Absolute Framework and conception of deviance- good vs evil Right vs wrong, morality vs immorality, natural vs unnatural Ex: atheism, religious extremism, minority religions, contraception, abortion 3. Sociological definitions Deviates from the norm Relativistic: no right or wrong but society creates the definition- no clear line How do structural factors contribute to deviant behavior? Who defines? How do definitions change over time? Ex: tattoos- stigma changes to become a lot less taboo Dance styles with changing music and social norms Clothing Marriage and divorce Abortion Marijuana use Social Factors like age, race, class, gender, status, education, etc help to pattern definitions of deviance Age has a huge impact in how we define deviance Ex: Sue Johanson- Sunday Night Sex Show- many people were uncomfortable with an old woman talking about sex on TV Gender- wage gap Race- Different consequences for the same act Socioeconomic status/class Becker (1963)- Outsiders Deviance: Failure to obey group rules Who is in the group? How were these rules chosen? Rule breakers and rule enforcers Different groups judge different things be deviant Deviant as outsider Violation of social contract "Deviance is not a quality that lies in behavior itself, but in the interaction between the person who commits an act and those who respond to it" (10) Deviance is created by society Reactions of others determine whether an act is deviant Symbiotic interactionism Variation over time Who commits the deviant act and who is harmed Rules Society-wide agreement Who makes rules? Who enforces? Who are the target of these rules? What type of behavior is being controlled? Rule breakers sometimes define enforcers as deviant Examples: Civil rights movement (1963) March on Washington (1963) KKK Tiananmen square, Beijing, China (1989) Tahir square, Cairo, Egypt (2011) Occupy Wall Street (2011) Edward Snowden (2013) DOMA repeal Google bus protests, San Francisco (2014) Black Lives Matter (2015) Best (2001)- Statistics Statistics Important and influential Used for good and evil Products of social activity and interaction Be critical Who created the statistics? Why were they created? How were they created? Statistics are social facts Depends on population and demographics EX: Presidential election results by states (2008) The map looks like McCain won the election but the map was not accurate in representing the population of the states Week 1 Lecture 3 Friday, April 1, 2016 Definitions of deviance Becker: Deviance is not the behavior but the reaction Deviance is created by society No act or behavior is inherently deviant Who makes the rules? Who is affected? Power and authority How do structural factors impact the definition of deviance? Examples of deviance that can be justified or at least accepted in some places and times Is murder justified in war? Self defense Death penalty Religious sacrifice Rape during war, marital rape, child brides Societal definition- There is no clear line of deviance The definition of deviance is about the context Who makes the rules and at what time Structural factors- age, race, gender, class, religion, status, etc. Pettit, Sykes, and Western (2009) - unemployment rates When you factor incarceration, there is a very different idea of what the rates of unemployment are Tittle and Paternaster (2000) - Norms Norms Vary by race, age, gender, class, etc. Expectation of conduct based on societal values Folkways, Mores, and laws Deviance as violation of norms of society Only one normative perspective Standards by which deviance is defined Norm Deviance Example Loyalty Apostasy Revolution; Advocating contrary government philosophy Privacy Intrusion Theft; Voyeurism Prudence Indiscretion Prostitution; Incest Conventionality Bizarreness Fetishes; Eating human flesh Responsibility Irresponsibility Desertion of family Participation Alienation Homelessness; Suicide; Receiving public assistance Moderation Hedonism-asceticism Hoarding-wasting; Tee totaling- alcoholism Honesty Deceitfulness Exploitation of the weak and helpless Peacefulness Disruption Fighting; Boisterous reveling Courtesy Uncouthness Picking nose; Rudeness Norms and deviance Folkways: Rituals and informal sanctions How we conduct ourselves in everyday interactions Mores: Moral significance Ex: Adultery- no laws against it but bad for society and looked down upon Norms: Interactions that show our shared values Ex: paying taxes - gender norms How to understand deviance Important theoretical distinctions Consensus vs conflict Micro vs macro Consensus: agreed upon and commonly understood- Functionalism and control Conflict: no agreement and different groups define deviance differently- power dynamics Durkheim (1938)- Functionalism Crime as functional for society Contradicts deviance as pathological concept- this is the natural state of society Maintains the health of society Criminality as normal at acceptable levels Impossible for a society to exist without it Society of saints and sinners- deviance is even in religion Crime gives us a better understanding of our society All people are inherently deviant but we have these rules that keep us in line for the most part Deviance is everywhere Positive functions of deviance 1. Norm reaffirmation- deviance makes our societal values clear 2. Boundary maintenance- what lines we can and cannot cross 3. Solidarity- unified under shared norms and values 4. Fiscal benefit- creates jobs and revenue opportunities Examples of positive functions of deviance Paris attacks (2015)- solidarity with the world- reaffirms the war on terror Kim Jong-un- Used in comparison with the US "at least we aren't that bad" argument- Example of what we don’t want to happen Dakis (1937)- Prostitutes Prostitutes as a function for society Protects the institution of marriage- men do not cheat on wives Wives do not have to perform what they don’t want to Undesirable, repulsive men + ugly, undesirable women Offers jobs for women with little to no job skills or attractiveness Gender norms solidified Dichotomy of women Wife vs prostitute Discussion section 1 Thursday, March 31, 2016 Announcements Discussion questions will be due Wednesdays by 7pm Two questions covering any or all of the readings but it is best to have a well-rounded question Flexible on topics and how the two questions are divided between readings Discussion Becker- Labeling theory Deviance isn't something clearly defined rather it is people's reaction to an act or behavior that makes it deviant Rules are sometimes formal like law but mostly informal rules and societal expectations that change over time Take away from Becker Deviance varies from case to case It is a function of time Who commits the act- race, gender, class, etc- rules are applied differently Rules are a structure of who is in power Flow of Becker's argument Definitions of deviance Statistical view Religious/spiritual- pathological Sociological- functional view Political perspective Labeling theory Rules are changed by groups and society Joel Best Worst statistic- Every year the number of kids shot has doubled Shows that statistics can easily be misconstrued when rewritten or restyled The typology is based on middle class norms Deviance is opposite of conventional