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Nutrition Notes Week 11

by: Alyssa Anderson

Nutrition Notes Week 11 NTRI 2000

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Alyssa Anderson

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These notes cover the material reviewed on the 11th week of school. They include the information about vitamins and water.
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Greene
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

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Date Created: 04/04/16
1 Nutriton Notes Week 11 Vitamin A Deficiency A. Leading cause of blindness worldwide B. Eye cells affected- inability to adjust to dim light, causes night blindness C. Xerophthalmia: hardening of cornea and drying of the surface of the eye, which can result in blindness Vitamin A Deficiency Risk A. North Americans are low risk- typical American diets contain preformed vitamin A B. Worldwide, 1/3 of children suffer from deficiency C. Attempts to reduce this problem: 1. Promote breastfeeding 2. Vitamin A megadoses 2x a year 3. Fortification of sugar and margarine Getting Enough Vitamin A and Carotenoids A. Preformed vitamin A: Liver, fish, fish oils, fortified mild, butter, yogurt, eggs B. Carotenoids: Dark green and yellow-orange vegetables C. Cooking improves bioavailability D. RDA expressed in retinol activity equivalents (RAE)- takes into account both preformed and carotenoid source E. Typical American diets sufficient- supplementation unnecessary for most people Avoiding Too Much Vitamin A and Carotenoids A. Excess linked to birth defects and liver toxicity- by preformed vitamin A B. Carotenoids in large amounts do not cause toxic effects C. Hypercarotenemia: skin turns yellow-orange, particularly hands and soles of feet,; disappears when intake decreases 2 Vitamin D – Fat soluble A. Not just a vitamin but is also a hormone B. Requires skin, liver, and kidneys C. The body can make vitamin D when exposed to UVB light D. Exposure time depends on skin color, age, time of day, season, and location Functions of Vitamin D A. Helps regulate blood calcium levels and bone metabolism (works with parathyroid hormone) 1. Helps regulate calcium and phosphorus absorption from intestine 2. Regulates the deposition of calcium in bone 3. Regulates calcium excretion from kidney B. Helps in the development and can decrease risk of cancer in skin, colon, prostate, ovary, and breast Deficiency of Vitamin D A. In children causes rickets- bow legs, enlarged head/joints/rib cage, deformed pelvis B. In adults causes osteomalacia 1. Softening of bones 2. Leads to fracture of hips and other bones Vitamin D toxicity A. UL – 50 micrograms per day B. Too much can cause calcium deposits in soft tissues C. Can’t develop vitamin D toxicity because of too much sunlight Vitamin D in foods A. Fatty fish B. Fortified milk and yogurt C. Some breakfast cereals 3 Vitamin E – Fat soluble A. A family of compounds called tocopherols B. Alpha Tocopherol – main form in the body C. Gamma Tocopherol – Foods D. Acts as a fat-soluble antioxidant E. Resides mostly in cell membranes Vitamin E – Antioxidant role A. Oxidizing agents are seeking electrons B. Example: the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids C. Oxidizing agents can create free radicals D. As an antioxidant, vitamin E has electrons it can give up to the oxidizing agent E. Result: protects components of the cell (phospholipids) Deficiency of Vitamin E A. Can cause cell membrane to break down B. This is particularly true in red blood cells, called hemolysis, which can lead to hemolytic anemia C. Premature infants are particularly at risk D. Smokers Vitamin E toxicity A. UL – 1000 milligrams per day B. High doses can interfere with clotting mechanism in body, leading to a hemorrhage C. Thus, people at risk are individuals taking anticoagulants, high does of aspirin or are deficient in vitamin K Vitamin E – in foods A. Plant oils (salad dressings, mayonnaise) B. Ready-to-eat cereals C. Dry roasted sunflower seeds and almonds D. Some fruits and vegetables 4 Vitamin K A. Vitamin K is vital for blood clotting B. The “K” of vitamin K comes from the Danish spelling of coagulation C. Vitamin K also activates proteins present in bone, muscle, and kidneys to give calcium binding ability to these organs D. Poor vitamin K intake is associated with hip fractures in women E. About 10% of our vitamin K is made by bacteria living in our GI tract F. Babies are routinely provided with a vitamin K supplement at birth to ensure blood clotting Vitamin K in foods A. Liver, green leafy vegetables (kale, turnip greens, dark green lettuce, spinach, brussel sprouts) asparagus, broccoli B. Oils – soybean and canola Vitamin K toxicity A. There is no risk of toxicity, so no UL has been set B. Megadoses may reduce the effectiveness of anticoagulation medications Water Soluble Vitamins A. Vitamin C 1. What is it? a. Compounds with antiscorbutic activity b. Dietary form is ascorbic acid c. Similar structure to glucose d. Essential for humans and some other species 2. Foods: a. Citrus fruit b. Green peppers c. Brussel sproutS d. Strawberries e. Tomatoes f. Fortified drinks 5 3. Stability a. Vitamin C is rapidly lost by processing and cooking food b. It is unstable in the presence of heat, iron, copper or oxygen 4. Functions: a. Formation of collage- strengthens structural tissues by increasing cross connections between amino acids b. Formation of other compounds, such as the synthesis of carnitine; formation of serotonin and norepinephrine c. Antioxidant- can readily accept and donate electrons B. B vitamins (function as precursors to coenzymes) 1. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12 2. Occur in many of the same foods 3. So a lack of one B vitamin may mean others are also low in the diet 4. B vitamin deficiency symptoms typically occur in the brain, nervous system, skin and GI tract 5. Several b vitamins are in whole grains, but are removed during milling process 6. To counter these losses, flour in the U.S. is enriched with four b vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate) C. Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine 1. Needed for the activity of many enzymes such as carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism; particularly important in amino acid metabolism, aids in transferring nitrogen group 2. Necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters by allowing nerve cells to communicate; important in the synthesis of hemoglobin and white blood cells; and necessary for conversion of tryptophan to niacin D. Vitamin B12 1. Contains the mineral cobalt 2. Must bind to intrinsic factor, made by the stomach, in order to be absorbed 3. Defective b12 absorption is common in older people 4. Animal products: meat, milk, poultry, seafood, eggs, ready to eat cereals 5. Required to convert folate into its active form 6 6. Maintains the myelin sheaths that insulates neuron- destruction of myelin causes paralysis and perhaps death 7. Pernicious anemia: means "leading to death;” symptoms include weakness, sore tongue, apathy, tingling in the extremities; infants of vegans are at risk E. Folate 1. The term folate encompasses a variety of forms of the vitamin 2. Folic acid is the synthetic form 3. Functions a. Single carbon supplier or donor b. Coenzyme helps c. Form DNA d. Metabolize various amino acids and their derivatives e. Bone marrow produces immature red bloood cells (megaloblasts) which causes megaloblastic anemia, which can cause an inflammation of tongue, mental confusion, depression, and problems with nerves 4. Deficiency a. 10% of population has genetic defect in the metabolism of folate, and as a result, they need up to double the RNA to compensate for the defect, and has be linked to neural tube defects in the fetus along with maternal folate deficiency b. Affects about 2000 infants a year in U.S., such as spina bifia to anencephaly. This occurs when the neural tube crosses within first 28 days of pregnant, which is a time when many women are not even aware they are pregnant, therefore, it is crucial for all women of child bearing age to have an adequate intake of folate 5. Folate in food a. RDA- 400 micrograms per day b. Pregnant- 600 micrograms per day c. The name folate comes from foliage d. Green leafy vegetables, organ meats, sprouts, other vegetables, dried beans, and orange juice e. Suceptible to destruction by heat 7 F.Thiamin (B1) 1. Help release energy from carbohydrates and certain amino acids 2. Beriberi ("I can't, I can’t") 3. There is no UL for thiamin 4. Pork products, whole grains, ready to eat cereals, enriched grains G. Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3) 1. Both aid in energy metabolism 2. Both are coenzymes 3. Riboflaviin - flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 4. Niacin - nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) H. Pantothenic acid 1. Aids in the energy metabolism 2. Coenzyme - coenzyme A 3. Deficiency among healthy people who eat a varied diet is unlikely  Water A. Life cannot exist without water B. Water is a solvent for chemicals in the body, allowing chemical reactions to take place C. Water makes up 50%-70% of the body’s weight Fluid Compartments A. Intracellular = water inside the cell B. Extracellular = water outside the cell C. Intracellular fluid is also referred to as ICF D. Water can move (diffuse) between compartments E. Ions control the movement of eater between the intracellular and extracellular compartments F. Ions are minerals with an electrical charge (also called electrolytes) G. The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane is called osmosis 8 Functions of Water A. Solvent for chemicals in the body, allows chemical reactions to take place B. Contributes to body temperature regulation (sweat) C. Helps remove waste products by dissolving them into the water D. Cushions and lubricants (knees, joints, saliva, bile) E. Water is not stored, but precisely regulated by the nervous, endocrine, digestive, and urinary systems What if we don't get enough water? A. 1-2% loss- thirst mechanism occurs B. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) helps the body conserve water 1. Released by pituitary 2. Communicated with kidney to conserve water C. Alderstone 1. Released from adrenal gland when blood volume decreases 2. Communicates with kidney to conserve water Can you consume too much water? A. Too much in a short period of time leads to water intoxication/poisoning 2. Dilutes sodium levels 3. Symptoms- nausea, mental confusion, vomiting, headaches, muscle weakness, convulsions Bioavailability of minerals A. Bioavailability- how much we take in B. Is dependent on 1) how much food and 20 our ability to absorb it C. The amount in a food doesn't generally reflect the bioavailability D. Minerals from plants 1. Depends on the soil its grown in 2. May be jocund by dietary fibers and other molecules E. Minerals from animal source 1. Are not as dependent on soil conditions 2. Absorbed better than plant sources because fewer binders and dietary fiber 9 Mineral Binders A. Oxalates (spinach)- binds calcium B. Phylates (grains)- binds calcium, iron zinc, others C. Mineral-mineral interactions- calcium-iron; zinc-copper D. Vitamin-mineral interactions Mineral Toxicities A. Minerals can be toxic in high levels, especially trace minerals B. Not a problem when food is the source, but can be from mineral supplements


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