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Psychology chapter 5 11 12 notes

by: Becca McSweeney

Psychology chapter 5 11 12 notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Becca McSweeney
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summary of notes from class (I will be uploading a study guide as well)
Intro to psychology
J. Dean Elmore
Class Notes
Psychology, Intro to Psychology




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca McSweeney on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by J. Dean Elmore in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Intro to psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 04/04/16
Chapter 11 •   Psychopathology: a mental disorder, it used to be viewed as “madness” due to being possessed by demons and evil spirits. It is now viewed as there is a dysfunction in the body & brain. Biological & environmental factors pay a big developmental role. •   Psychological are the most common disability. It is considered a disorder once the problem lingers and troubles the person for a long time. How to determine psychopathology: 1.   If the person acts different from their culture to be “normal” 2.   If the behavior is maladaptive 3.   If the behavior is self destructive (hurts them) 4.   If the behavior discomforts/concerns someone else (impacts relationships) •   Emily Kraepelin: psychiatrist in the 1800s, identified mental disorders based on the symptoms that happen together •   1952: the first edition of the DSM (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders) was released by the APA •   disorders are diagnosed in terms of observable symptoms •   multiaxial system: assessment along the 5 axes that describe important mental health factors. •   Categorical vs dimensional approach •   Comorbidity: the presence of 2 chronic diseases or conditions in a person •   Diathesis stress model: when a disorder is developed when an underlying vulnerability of coupled with a precipitating event. (health is related with psychological, sociological, and biological) •   Biological factors contribute to mental disorders by genetics, prenatal problems, children exposed to malnutrition and toxins due to the effects on the central nervous system. •   Functional neuroimaging is the research into neurological components of mental disorders. •   PET and fMRI reveal that the brain regions function differently when you have a mental disorder •   Family systems model: the patient’s individual behavior must be considered within a social context (within a family) aka problems are caused by family. •   Sociocultural models: mental disorders are due to interacting with people in their culture. Disorders are different when lifestyles and expectations/opportunity is different between classes. •   Cognitive behavioral approach: abnormal behavior is learned through classical and operant conditioning. Thoughts and beliefs can be studied; thoughts can be distorted which leads to maladaptive behavior and emotions. •   Generalized anxiety (GAD): diffuse state of constant anxiety but not caused by a specific thing. These people are constantly anxious and worry about small things. Hypervigilance can occur due to GAD, not being able to focus, being tired, sleep problems, headaches, restlessness, ect. Roughly 6% of the US population is affected by this disorder. Women are diagnosed more than men. •   Pros of anxiety: motivates you to do something and teaches new ways of coping with life challenges. Anxiety is characterized by excessive anxiety when there isn’t real danger there. •   More than 1 in 4 Americans suffer from anxiety disorders during their lifetime •   Causes of anxiety: o   Cognitive components: people see some situations as threatening while other people see them as nonthreatening, also anxious people tend to focus on the situation they see as a threat and exaggerate the whole situation and make it into a much bigger deal. o   Sociocultural components: social learning can cause a person to develop a fear by observing someone else being scared of the situation, once the person learns that fear, it may generalize to other fears and lead to a more general fear. o   Biological components: kids who have an inhibited temperamental style are typically shy and avoid unfamiliar situations which then leads that child to develop an anxiety disorder later in life. o   Biological and cognitive behavioral factors develop a relationship to produce symptoms of OCD •   Some disorders share symptoms but are still very different. Chronic stress can damage the body including the brain so it is vital to diagnose and treat chronic anxiety. •   Phobias: fear of a specific thing. Ex: blood, animal, injury, disaster. •   Social phobia: fear of being seen negatively by others. Ex: public speaking, meeting new people, eating in front of another person. •   PTSD: Nightmares, bad thoughts, flashbacks relating to a trauma. Chronic tension, anxiety memory/ attention problems, and have the inability to forget what happened. Around 7% of the US population is diagnosed with this disorder. Women are more likely to develop the disorder. •   Panic disorder: Consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror, lasts for a few minutes, has a racing heart, trembling, ect. These patients attempt suicide more frequently due to the panic attacks. 3% of the population gets diagnosed women are TWICE as likely to be diagnosed than man. There is a relationship between panic attacks and agoraphobia (fear of places you know you will have a panic attack) •   Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive action. Obsessions are recurrent intrusive unwanted thoughts/images. Compulsions are acts that ODC people feel. Begins in adulthood, affects 1-2% of the US population, more common for women. Social  phobia  commonly  comorbid  with   depression   Extreme  fear  of  social   Major   encounters   Compulsions  and  obsessions  about  being   depression   evaluated   OCD   edn    with  evaluation  of  physical   People  with  autism   Panic   Body   appearance     disorder  or   dysmorphic   Social  phobia,  also  known  as  social   may  be  socially   agoraphobia   disorder   awkward   anxiety  disorder   Social  anxiety   Autism   disorder   spectrum   Social  awkwardness  can  be  an   early  symptom  of  schizophrenia     disorders   Normal  social  anxiety   Social  anxiety   and  shyness  are   Schizophrenia   common,  although   (Shyness)     often  temporary  and   dependent  on  situation   2   Depression •   2 types of mood disorders: o   Depressive disorders: features persistent and pervasive feelings of sadness o   Bipolar disorders: involve radical fluctuations in mood •   Major depression: severe negative moods or the lack of interest in something you would normally take pleasure in. 6-7% of the US population in a 12-month period. Effects women twice as much as men. •   Dysthymia: form of depression that isn’t as severe. 2-3% of the US population, lasts between 2- 20 years but its most commonly 5-10 years. Some psychologists diagnose it as a personality disorder due to its long length. •   Cognitive triad: negative thoughts about one’s self, situation and the future (Aaron T. Beck) •   Learned helplessness: people see themselves as helpless and unable to have any effect on their lives. Depressed people tend to see things as stable rather than situational which makes them believe they can’t do anything to help themselves. •   Studies say that depression has a genetic component. •   Medications increase the availability of norepinephrine and serotonin can help with depression due to chemical imbalances. Biological rhythms and damage to the left prefrontal cortex is implicated in depression. •   Depression can be caused by life stressors and the way that the person reacts to stress. Schizophrenia •   Disorder where there is a split between thought and emotion (a person and reality, the person loses their connection with reality) this disconnection is called psychosis •   Between .5-1% of the population has schizophrenia. Effects men and women similarly •   Symptoms: excess in functioning, delusions, hallucinations, constant talking to themselves, disorganized speech and behavior which makes it hard to communicate with this person (Positive). Deficits in functioning, lack of emotion, apathy, slowed speech and movement, avoid eye contact, sometimes wont respond or will just stop talking (negative) Negative symptoms are harder to treat with medication. •   Delusions and associated beliefs •   Persecution •   Thinking someone is spying on them •   Reference •   Believing something has special significance to them •   Grandeur •   Belief that you have power, knowledge or talent •   Identity •   Belief that you are someone else •   guilt •   belief that you have committed a really bad sin •   control •   belief that someone is controlling you •   Genetics plays a big role in the disorder, twins tend to develop it together. Having a parent with schizophrenia is more of a predisposition than a destiny. •   The ventricles in the brain are larger and abnormalities in the brain, abnormalities in neurotransmitters (dopamine) lead to schizophrenia. •   Environmental stress contributes to developing schizophrenia (living in an urban area such as New York) doubles the chance of developing schizophrenia in life. People are typically born during late winter and early spring. Or growing up in a dysfunctional family might increase the risk of developing schizophrenia. 3   •   Bipolar disorder: a mood disorder that has alternative periods of depression and mania. 4% of US population is diagnosed, equal between men and women. Occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. o   a manic episode involves an elevated mood, diminished need for sleep, complex ideas, racing thoughts, distractibility, love involvement in foolish activities. o   Hypomanic episode: less extreme elevation in mood, heightened creativity and productivity. •   Dissociative disorder: disruption of identity, memory and conscious awareness. Result of extreme stress. o   Dissociative amnesia: when a person forgets that something happened and forgets it for a substantial block of time. o   Dissociative fugue: The rarest and most extreme form of dissociative amnesia that involves loss of identity, involves someone traveling to another place and getting a new identity. •   Dissociative identity disorder (DID): used to be called multiple personality disorder, but it is when someone has 2 or more identifies in the same person. This can be a result of someone being abused as a child, they may cope with the abuse by pretending it happened to someone else which leads to taking another identity. Personality Disorders •   Stable over time, set during adolescence or early adulthood, more enduring than other disorders, leads to distress or impairment. Constantly act in maladaptive ways. •   Cluster A: Odd cluster. Kinda like schizophrenia but not. o   Paranoid: Tense, guarded, holds grudges seems suspicious. o   Schizoid: Isolates oneself, tough time showing emotions and had a hard time making relationships, o   Schizotypal: emotionally detached, superstitious, peculiar thoughts & behaviors, socially isolated •   Cluster B: Dramatic, emotionally unstable o   Borderline: hates to be alone, intense, unstable moods & relationships, anger outbursts, suicidal, substance abuse o   Borderline personality disorder: disturbances in identity, in affect, and impulse control. These people are borderline psychotic (hint the name borderline personality disorder) 1- 2% of people are diagnosed, twice as common for women than men. o   Causes: Low serotonin, trauma, or abuse o   Histrionic: seductive, needs reassurance, needs gratification, shallow emotions and changes moods rapidly. o   Narcissistic: Self absorbed, expects special treatment, wants admiration, gets jealous of someone getting more attention, thinks they are better than others. o   Antisocial: Manipulative, exploitive, dishonest, disloyal, cannot feel guilt, gets in trouble a lot, from a young age this can be seen. o   Antisocial personality disorder (APD) used to be called psychopath. It’s a personality disorder where a person cannot feel emotions or feel bad. Behave in socially undesirable ways and does not think of others. Effects 1-4% of the population. More common in men than women. Seen in late adolescence and early childhood. Normally improves around age 40. Roughly 50% of the prison population can be diagnosed with APD. APD patients do not feel fear or anxiety, some people with APD can still be very successful. Genetics and environmental factors play a big role in APD, Amygdala abnormality is shown in APD patients. Low socioeconomic status, dysfunctional families, childhood abuse and malnutrition is important 4   •   Cluster C: Fearful, anxious o   Avoidant: easily hurt/embarrassed, not good at relationships, thus not many close friends, sticks to routines and avoids unfamiliar and stressful situations. o   Dependent: Wants others to make decisions for them, needs advice and reassurance, fear of being abandoned. o   OCD: perfectionist, overly conscientious, indecisive, preoccupied with details, rigid, has trouble expressing affection.   Resilient  individual       e   P t   O t N Negative   Positive   Environment/experience     5   Chapter 12 •   Different types of Practitioners: o   Clinical psychologist: has a Ph.D. or Psy.D. Skilled at working with patients with mental illnesses. o   Counseling Psychologist: has a Ph.D. deals with patients with adjustment problems that do not involve in mental illnesses. o   Psychiatrist: has a M.D. can prescribe medications. •   Psychotherapy: Formal psychological treatment: technique depends on practitioner’s training, involves heavy interaction between client and practitioner. The goal is to help the patient understand their symptoms and how to live with it or provide solutions. •   Biological therapies: based on medical approaches to the illness/disease. Established by the belief that mental illness is due to neural and bodily abnormalities. Which is cured by psychochophamacology. (medications to help fix the brain/bodily functions.) •   Types of therapy and approaches: o   Psychodynamic therapy: free association, dream analysis, focusing on the unconscious. The goal is to help the patient gain insight on their psychological process: o   Humanist therapy: focusing on the whole person. The goal is to treat the person as a whole rather than a collection of behaviors or thoughts. Client centered therapy encourages people to fulfill their potential for personal growth by understanding themselves better. Unconditional positive regard is used to allow the client to feel comfortable to speak whatever and not have to worry about the therapist judging them. Therapists will often use reflective listening with the client. o   Behavior therapy: based on 2 ideas; behavior is learned and can be unlearned by using CC and OC. These behaviors are learned by modeling. You can use a CSàCR1 (fear connection) and replace it with CSàCR2 (the relaxation connection). You can also use graduated exposure to a feared object slowly until that fear goes away or behavioral self monitoring which is monitoring the behavior and change it that way. o   Cognitive therapy: based on the idea that distorted thoughts can produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions. The treatment for this therapy modifies these thought patterns to change the behavior. This is done by rational emotive therapy which is when the therapist acts as a teacher and corrects the errors in the client’s behavior and emotions. Or thought cognitive restructuring which is when a clinician helps the client recognize the errors in their thought patterns and replaces them with better ways to deal with it. Interpersonal therapy focuses on relationships and help the client explore their interpersonal experiences and express their emotions. Mindfulness- based therapy is to help prevent relapses of mental illnesses. Medication is used to help this. •   Treatment of disorders through medication: o   Bipolar disorder: Lithium and antidepressants o   Schizophrenia: Antipsychotics (Haldol) or atypical (Risperdal) because they affect dopamine but have side effects. Best when treated early and aggressively. o   Personality disorders: little is known how to treat personality disorders due to few studies. They are very difficult to treat because patients see the environment rather than their own behaviors being the root of their problems. •   Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT): is the combination of behavioral and cognitive treatments with a mindfulness approach. It is the best way to address the issues in the client and identify disturbances. There are 3 stages: 1.   The patient’s behaviors are replaced with better once (better problem solving techniques and how to control emotions) 2.   Therapist helps the client discover the root of their emotional problems (possible traumatic things) 3.   The therapist helps the patient learn self respect and how to be independent and successful 2   Chapter  5   •   Biological rhythm: example: hibernation, migration, in humans: your testosterone rises in the fall, while it decreases in the spring. It can happen due to daylight or temperature or can be known to happen from within (endogenous). •   Circadian rhythm: a biological rhythm that happens within a time period of 24 hours. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) tells the body what to do. An example of this would be taking melatonin which is a sleep inducing hormone. It effects hormone levels, blood pressure ect. Jet lag happens due to internal desynchronization which occurs when your biological rhythm is not in sync with one another. •   Long term rhythms: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): some people can become sad in the winter due to the low light while as most people are happier in the summer due to being out in the sun/light. SAD can be treated by placing fluorescent lights around the person. A menstrual cycle is another example of a long term rhythm. •   Sleep: when your brain isn’t aware of its surroundings but it is still conscious. Hours of sleep needed range from person to person, someone may only need 2 hours of sleep while another person may need 10. Sleep is a circadian rhythm. There are 4 stages of sleep depending on different waves going on in the brain. •   REM sleep: this sleep cycle reverses after roughly 90 minutes of sleep. Dreams occur in REM sleep and the amount of time spend in REM increases. Sleep disorders: Insomnia: Difficulty falling or staying asleep Obstructive Sleep Apnea Breathing may stop a lot during sleep Narcolepsy Unexpectedly falling asleep REM behavior disorder Acts out their dreams Somnambulism Sleep walking •   Sleep is adaptive, it restores your body: the body rests and repairs itself, strengthens the immune system (when you lack sleep you are more prone to sickness) you get energized (naps) •   When you lack sleep, you may be more irritable, have problems focusing, make you get sick (weakens immune system), microsleep (falling asleep for a second-a minute) can make critical tasks be compromised (falling asleep while driving) •   Humans sleep at night because our early ancestors were more at risk during the night time; circadian rhythm theory: it reduces the risk of exposure to predators. •   Sleep strengthens neural connections so you can learn, it makes memory greater, REM sleep and slow wave (stages 3 & 4) are important for you to be able to learn. •   Sleep can make you remember things later. Sleeping for 8 hours at night can help you discover the shortcut that can reduce the work needed to remember something. •   A dream is a product of an altered stage of consciousness where images and fantasies are confused with reality. •   Non-REM dreams •   Shorter, dull dreams, a general de- activation of many brain regions. •   REM dreams •   Very visual and auditory with intense emotions, brain is more active. •   Lucid dreams: a dream that you are aware of and sometimes able to control the dream. According to dr Brogaard, you know that you are dreaming, you can control the dream actions, you can manipulate your dream surroundings, and manipulate other people’s actions in your dream. •   Psychoanalytic theory (FREUD): dreams contain hidden content that has further explanation withing unconscious conflicts. o   Manifest content: The way the plot of the dream is remembered o   Latent content: what a dream symbolizes (how you can interpret what happened in the dream that is your reality disguised in that dream without being complete reality. o   There is no scientific evidence that dreams relate to reality or have symbolic meaning. •   Dreams may or may not help us cope with real events or rehearse strategies for coping or help us adapt to things to help us survive. •   Cognitive theory: dreaming is like the activity that we engage in while we are awake, uses memories and knowledge to create dreams. It predicts that we are awake but cut off from external stimulation which means that our thoughts would have the same hallucinatory quality that we have during dreaming. •   Activation synthesis theory: the explanation of why we dream, it suggests that our dreams are caused by the physiological processes of the brain. The brain is very active during dreams, but people say that dreams are not as chaotic as this theory says it is, or that this is the same as everyday life experiences. •   Drugs: drugs create altered states of mind. Roughly 250 MILLION people use illicit drugs every year. These drugs include, alcohol, prescription drugs, caffeine and nicotine. Drugs can help treat medical conditions but people using drugs for recreational use can have bad side effects. •   Psychoactive drugs: effects the brains neurochemistry (alters the mind) this includes cocaine, MDMA, marijuana and amphetamines. The effect of the drug depends on which neurotransmitter the drug activates. Stimulants Opiates Depressants Psychedelics • Cocaine • Opium •Alcohol • LSD • Amphetamines • Heroin •Tranquilizers • Psilocybin • MDMA • Morphine •Effect:  slows   • Marijuana • Effect:  speeds   • Effect:  Relieves   down  activity   • Effect:  Distrupt   up  activity  in  pain in  the  central   normal  thought   the  nervous   nervous  system process  (time   system or  space) 2  


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