NTRI vitamins and minerals week 3
NTRI vitamins and minerals week 3 NTRI 2000-002
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Chappano on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Vitamin A Deﬁciency - leading cause of blindness worldwide - eye cells affected • inability to adjust to dim light, causes night blindness - Xerophthalmia: hardening of the cornea, drying of surface of eye and results in blindness. - Risk— North Americans are low risk • Typical American diet contain preformed Vitamin A • Worldwide 1/3 of children suffer - Attempts to reduce problem: 1. Promote breast feeding Vitamin A megadose 2x a year 2. 3. Fortiﬁcation of sugar/margarine Getting Enough Carotenoids & Vitamin A - Preformed Vitamin A • Liver, ﬁsh oils, fortiﬁed milk, butter, yogurt, eggs - Carotenoids Dark green/yellow-orange veggies • • cooking improves bioavailability - RDA expressed in retinol activity equivalents • Takes into account both preformed and carotenoid sources - typical American diets sufﬁcient • Supplementation unnecessary for most people Avoiding too much - excess links to birthday defects and liver toxicity • Preformed vitamin A - carotenoids in large amounts do not cause toxic effects • Hypercarotinemia: skin turns yellow orange particularly hands and soles • disappears when intake decreases Vitamin D fat soluble - not just a vitamin but also hormone - Require skin, liver, and kidneys - Body can make vitamin D when exposed to UVB light - Exposure time depends on skin color, age, time of the day, season, location Functions of Vitamin D - helps regulate blood calcium levels and bone metabolism (works with paratynoid hormone) • Helps regulate calcium and phosphorus absorption from intestine Regulates deposition of calcium in bone • • Regulates calcium excretion from kidney - helps in development and can decrease risk of cancer and skin, colon, prostate, ovary, breasts Deﬁciency of vitamin D - in children causes rickets Bow legs, and large head, joints, rib cage, deformed pelvis - • adults causing Osteomalacia • Softening of bones • Leads to fracture of hips and other bones Vitamin D toxicity - UL-50 micrograms per day - Too much can cause calcium deposits and soft tissues - Can't develop vitamin D toxicity because of too much sunlight Vitamin D foods - fatty ﬁsh, fortiﬁed milk, yogurt, some breakfast cereal Vitamin E fat soluble - Family of compounds called Tocopherols - Alpha Tocopherol: main form in body - Gamma Tocopherol: foods - Acts as a fat soluble antioxidant - Resides in cell membrane Vitamin E antioxidant rule - oxidizing agent seeking electrons - Example: double bonds of unsaturated fatty acid and phospholipids - Oxidizing agents can create free radicals - As an antioxidant, vitamin E has electrons it can get up as agents - Result: protects compounds of cell (phospholipids) Deﬁciency of vitamin E - cause cell membrane to break down - Particularly true in RBC, breaking of RBC is called hemolysis • leads to hemolytic anemia - premature infants particularly at risk - smokers Vitamin E toxicity - UL-1000 micrograms per day - Increased doses can interfere with clotting mechanisms and body, leading to hemorrhage - Thus, people at risk are individually taking anticoagulants, high doses of aspirin, or are deﬁcient in vitamin K Vitamin E and foods - plant oils, ready to eat cereals, dry roasted sunﬂower seeds and almonds, some fruits and vegetables Vitamin K - vital for blood clotting - K in vitamin K comes from danish spelling of coagulation - Vitamin K activates proteins present in bone, muscle, and kidneys to give calcium binding ability to those organs - Poor vitamin K intake is associated with hip fractures in woman - 10% of K is created by bacteria in GI tract - Babies routinely provided with vitamin K supplement at birth to ensure no blood clotting Vitamin K in foods - liver, green leafy foods and vegetables, kale, turnip greens, dark green lettuce, spinach, Brussel sprouts, asparagus, broccoli - oils: soybean, canola Vitamin K toxicity - no risk of toxicity, no upper limit set - Megadoses reduce effectiveness of anti-coagulant meds Water soluble vitamins - vitamin C - B vitamins (function as precursors to enzymes) • Thiamin, Riboﬂavin, Niacin, Biotin, Vitamin B6, Folate, and Vitamin B12 Vitamin C What is it? - compound with antiscorbutic activity • Dietary form is ascorbic acid similiar structure to glucose • • essential - Foods: citrus fruit, green peppers, Brussel sprouts, strawberries, tomatoes, fortiﬁed drinks - Stability: rapidly lost by processing and cooking food • It is unstable in the presence of heat, iron, copper, and oxygen Vitamin C Functions - Formation of collagen Strengthens structural tissues by increasing cross connections between amino acids - • Formation of other compounds • Synthesis of carnitine; formation of serotonin and norepinephrine - Antioxidant • Can readily accept or donate electrons B Vitamins - occur in many of same foods - lack of one B vitamin may mean others are also low in diet - B Vitamin deﬁciency symptoms typically occur in brain, nervous system, skin, and GI tact - Several B Vitamins are in whole grains, but are removed during the milling process - To counter these losses, ﬂour in US in enriched with four B vitamin (thiamin, riboﬂavin, niacin, folate) Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxine - needed for the activity of many enzymes CHO, protein, and fat metabolism - •particularly important in amino acid metabolism • aids in transferring Nitrogen group • allowing us to make amino acids (nonessential amino acids) - Necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters • allows nerve cells to communicate - Important in the synthesis of hemoglobin - Important in the synthesis of WBC - Necessary for conversion of tryptophan to niacin Vitamin B12 - contains mineral cobalt - must bing to intrinsic factor, made by the stomach, in order to be absorbed - defective B12 absorption is common in older people Vitamin B12 in Food - Animal products: meat, milk, poultry, seafood, eggs, ready to eat cereal Vitamin B12 Functions - required to convert folate into active form - maintain the myelin sheaths that insulates neurons • destruction of myelin causes paralysis, and perhaps death Vitamin B12 Deﬁciency - pernicious anemia— “leading to death - Symptoms: weakness, sore tongue, apathy, tingling in the extremities. - Infants of vegans are at risk Folate - term folate encompasses a variety of forms of vitamin - Folic acid is the synthetic form Folate functions - single carbon supplier/donor - coenzyme helps 1. Form DNA 2. metabolize various amino acids and their derivatives Folate Deﬁciency - bone marrow produces immature RBC (megaloblasts • megaloblastic anemia - Symptoms • inﬂamed tongue • mental confusion • depression • problem with nerves - 10% of population has genetic defects in metabolism of folate • as a result they need up to 2x the RDA to compensate - this defect, along with maternal folate deﬁciency has been linked to neural tube defects in the fetus Neural Tube Defects - affects about 2000 infants a year in the US - Spini biﬁa to anencephaly - Neural tube closes within ﬁrst 28 days of pregnancy • a time when many women are not even aware they are pregnant - it is crucial for all women of child bearing age to have an adequate intake of folate Folate in Food - RDA 400 micrograms per day - pregnant RDA 600 micrograms per day - name folate comes from foliage - green leafy veggies, organic meats, sprouts, other veggies, dried beans, and orange juice - susceptible to destruction by heat Thiamin (B1) - helps release energy from CHO and amino acids - Beriber “I cant, I cant” - related to nervous system Thiamin in foods - no Upper limit - pork products, whole grains, ready to eat cereals, and enriched grains Riboﬂavin (B2) and Niacin (B3) - both did in energy in metabolism - coenzyme - Riboﬂavin: ﬂavin adenine dinucleotide - Niacin: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Pantothenic acid - energy in metabolism - coenzymes—coenzyme A - deﬁciency among healthy people who eat varied diet (pan=“all”) Water - Life cannot exist without water - Water is the solvent for the chemicals in body, allowing chemical reactions to take place - Makes up 50 to 70% of body's weight - Cannot survive long without water Fluid compartments - intracellular: water inside - Extracellular: water outside of cell - Water can move, diffuse, between compartments Control - ions control movement of water between the intracellular and extracellular compartment - Ions are minerals with an electrical charge also called electrolytes - Movement of water across a semipermeable membrane is called Osmosis Functions - solvent for chemicals and body, alas chemical reactions to take place - Contributes to body temperature regulation, sweat - Helps remove waste products • Waste dissolves in water - cushions and lubricates • Knees, joints, saliva, bile The water balancing act - water is not stored - Precisely regulated by nervous, endocrine, digestive, and urinary system If we don't get enough water? - 1 to 2% loss—thirst mechanism occurs how does water converse water? - Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • Released by pituitary • Communicates with kidney to conserve water • Aldersterone • Released form adrenal gland when blood volume decreases Communicates with kidney to conserve water • • Causes salt to be taken up What if thirst is ignored? - 4% loss: muscles his strength and endurance - 10 to 12% loss: heat tolerance is decreased - 20% loss: coma and perhaps that Can thirst be ignored? - yes - Athletes – weigh before and after - Sick children - older people - Infants Can you consume too much water? - too much in a short period time leads to water intoxication or poisoning - Dilute sodium levels: hyponatremia levels of sodium - Symptoms: nausea, mental confusion, vomiting, headache, muscle weakness, convulsions Minerals - major minerals > 100 milligrams per day - Trace minerals < 100 milligrams per day Bioavailability of minerals - bioavailability : how much we take in Depends on how much is in the food and our ability to absorb it • - so, amount in food doesn't generally reﬂect the bio availability - Minerals from plants Depends on the soil is grown in • • May be bound by dietary ﬁbers and other molecules - minerals from animal sources • Are not as dependent on soil condition • Absorbed better than plant sources • fewer binders and dietary ﬁbers - mineral binders Oxalates (spinach): binds calcium • • Phytate's (grains): binds calcium, iron, zinc and others • Mineral – mineral interactions • Calcium – iron; zinc – copper • Vitamin – mineral interaction • Vitamin C improves iron absorption • Vitamin D improves calcium absorption Mineral Toxicity - minerals can be toxic and high levels, especially trace minerals - not a problem when food is the source, but can be from mineral supplements