Chapter 1 Demo
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CSCI A110: Intro to Computers and Computing
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This 5 page Reader was uploaded by Emily Hoard on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Reader belongs to a course at Indiana University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
Chapter 1 Exceptionality and Special Education The study of exceptional learners is the study of differences and similarities More than 6 million of these learners identi ed in public schools in the US More than 110 school age students in US considered to be excep onal Today there is a stronger focus on the similarities rather than differences between both students characterisitics needs ways of learning making the study even more complex Getting Oriented To Exceptional Learners and Special Education Since no single theory of normal development is universally accepted it is not surprising that few de nite statements can be made about exceptional learners and many controversies remain Reasons for Optimism Professionals are unable to gure out why a person is exceptional but are making progress in determining the cause of them Down Syndrome condition that results in the largest number of children classi ed as having moderate intellectual and developmental disabilities Retinopathy of prematuritythe leading cause of blindness Phenylketonuria was discovered and is now being tested for along with the gene for cystic brosis an inherited disorder characterized by chronic respiratory and digestive problems Advances in drug treatments are helping to cure muscular dystrophy disorder characterized by the progressive degeneration of muscles Doctors can now also perform surgeries to correct some disorders such as Hydrocephalus an accumulated of uid around the brain Stem cells We must learn to live with disabilities but never accept them The Importance of Abilities People with disabilities abilities many times go unrecognized because of the disability 0 Some students need the extra programs and attention in school to be successful and to ful ll happy lives Disability Versus Handicap 0 Disability is the inability to do something a diminished capacity to perform in a speci c way Handicap disadvantage imposed on an individual 0 Must keep the 2 separate 0 Goal should be to con ne the handicaps to those characteristics and circumstances that can t be changed and to make sure we impose no further handicaps by our attitudes or our unwillingness to accommodate disabilities Disability Versus Inability o All disabilities are an inability to do something that most people can do with typical maturation or instruction can do 0 Based upon expectations of what we believe someone should be able to do Educational De nition of Exceptional Learners Exceptional learners are those who require special education and related services if they are to realize their full potential 0 Variety of needs such as behavioral disorders physical disorders traumatic brain injury intellectual disabilities 0 Both diversity of characteristics and the need for special education are important for the de nition of exceptional learners They demand education that differs from what most learners reqUIre Prevalence of Exceptional Learners Prevalencethe percentage of a population or number of individuals having a particular exceptionality The vagueness in de nitions frequent changes and roles of school all make it dif cult to state exceptionalities In the early 21st century 10 of students were receiving special educa on HighIncidence and L0 Wlncidence Categories 0 High incidence disabilities are the most common a Learning disabilities communication disorders emotional disturbance and mid intellectual disabilities are high incidence Some of the low incidence categories have increased such as Autism and traumatic brain injury De nition of Special Education 0 Special educationspeci cally designed instruction that meets the unusual needs of an exceptional student and might require special materials teaching techniques or equipment Most important goal is capitalizing on abilities Special education is more precisely controlled in pace or rate intensity relentlessness structure reinforcement teacher pupil ratio curriculum and monitoring of assessment History and Origins of Special Education Began with keeping children away and protected from the outside world Eventually reformists spoke about the importance of teaching them skills People and Ideas Originators of special education were European physicians Beginning was JeanMarcGaspard Itard 17751838 a French physician who was an authority on ear and deafness o Philippe Pinel early advocate for quotinsanesquot rights 0 One of Itard s students Edouard Seguin came to America and formed the foundation using these ideas 1 individualized instruction 2 carefully sequenced series of educational tasks 3 emphasis on stimulation and awakening of the child s senses 4 meticulous arrangement of the child s environment 5 immeadiate reward for correct behavior 6 tutoring in functional skills 7 belief that every child should be educated to the greatest extent possible 0 Samuel Gridley Howe 18011876 graduate of Harvard medical school founded Perkins School for the blind teaching both deaf and blind taught Laura Bridgman who in uenced Helen Keller 0 Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet 17871851 established rst American residential school and eventually the rst deaf college was named for him Normalization Deinstitutionaization and Inclusion Normalizationthe philosophy that we should use quotmeans which are as cuturay normative as possible in order to establish personal behaviors and characteristics which are as cuturay normative as possiblequot 0 This helps to break down barriers Deinstitutionalizationbreaking down barriers to participation of people with disabilities in activities with non handicapped people In the 19605705 people began to move children out of institutions lnclusion or integration into classrooms Council for Exceptional Children and Development of the Profession The entrance of psychology and sociology with mental tests put attention on special education Growing realization that a large number of students must be given something beyond the ordinary class experience Individuals Parents and Organizations Much of the progress that has been made is by parents and professionals Professional organizations began around the beginning of the 19th century with parent groups growing interest in the 1950 s Parent Organizations have 3 functions 1 provide an informal group for parents who understand each s problems to deal with frustrations 2 provide info regarding services and resources 3 provide the structure for obtaining needed services for their children Legislation and Litigation 0 Laws required states to include special education students into the public school system 0 Education for All Handicapped Children Act eventually amended to Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA 0 Basically that all individuals have the rights to a free appropriate public education o In 1990 the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA ensured the right of individuals to nondiscriminatory treatment provides protection of civil rights a This program provides incentives for states to have early intervention programs a State typically ends up paying for costs o No Child Left Behind Act increased the controversy 0 Students with disabilities are expected to take standardized tests 0 Hudson V Rowley case Comment on Progress in Special Education Parents and students now have rights in the face of education and receiving one for free Laws are also enacted to make sure they receive early intervention Improving special education is a continuous struggle
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