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Week 2 notes

by: Danielle Notetaker

Week 2 notes PSY 330

Danielle Notetaker
GPA 3.2

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Week two lectures for Quiz 2
Thinking >2
Rode C
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 330 at University of Oregon taught by Rode C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Thinking >2 in Social Science at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Week Two 04/05/2016 ▯ How accurately can we describe the mental process involved in our own thinking? ▯ ▯ Higher order cognition ▯ Frontal Lobe- Problem solving, judgment, decision making, risk perception ▯ ▯ We cannot describe the process ▯ ▯ Introspection- ▯ 1. we cannot accurately describe the effect of a stimulus on our thinking process ▯ 2. when we are reporting an effect of a stimulus on our thought process, we often rely on a prori theories rather than on an accurate account of the stimulus effect ▯ 3. when our reports are correct, it is because of the employment of an incidentally correct a priori theory ▯ ▯ we rely on theories ▯ ▯ Introspection- ▯ Cognitive dissonance: psychological discomfort arises from cognitions such as “ I have done something unpleasant for no good reason” To avoid such discomfort the person revises their opinion about behavior (Zimbardo) ▯ ▯ NO DIFFERENCE IN VERBAL REPORTS OF SUBJECTS IN HIGH VS LOW COGNITIVE DISSONANCE GROUPS ▯ ▯ The sleeping pill study: ▯ Half got a placebo, half did not ▯ Dependent measure- onset of sleep ▯ Result- aroused subjects fell asleep faster than usual, relaxed subjects fell asleep later ▯ ▯ 1. The cognitive process studied were of a routine sort that occur frequently in daily life. Deception was used minimally and in only a few studies ▯ 2. Studies were designed to sample a wide range of behavioral domains, including evaluations, judgments, choices and predictions ▯ 3. Care was taken to establish that the subject were thoroughly cognizant of the existence of both the critical stimulus and their own responses ▯ 4. with two exceptions, the critical stimuli were verbal in nature, thus reducing the possibility that subjects could be cognizant of the role of the critical stimulus but simply unable to describe it verbally ▯ 5. most of the stimulus situations were designed to be as little ego- involving as possible ▯ ▯ Word association test: subject fail to report an effect of previously learned word pairs on consecutive word choice ▯ ▯ Position effect- subject are unaware of how strongly they were affected by the position of an item in a super market study ▯ ▯ Halo effect study on teacher with accent ▯ ▯ Professor with an accent ▯ Subjects denied that their liking of the professor affected their ratings of the three attributes. Moreover, they reported that the rating of the three attributes had affected how much they liked the professor ▯ ▯ Introspection: A priori theories ▯ Introspection does not generate accurate and valid data ▯ ▯ If our behavior is affected by variables we do not believe to affect our behavior, we can be manipulated. ▯ ▯ Video: ▯ Wilson’s experiment: shown a video with subliminal images of bananas, then majority choose to eat bananas after the film. ▯ Subliminal images affect our decisions/behaviors ▯ Needed a control group ▯ ▯ The more beats per minute, the more likely we are to buy something ▯ Arousal affects us, if we are aroused we want to do things and be active ▯ The music is what affects our activation level and our behaviors to purchase ▯ ▯ EASE OF RETRIEVAL ▯ Method- subjects were asked to recall either 6 or 12 instances of recent assertive behavior ▯ Hypothesis- since retrieving 12 instances is harder, subjects conclude they may not be as assertive ▯ Result- data confirms the hypothesis: unbeknownst to the subject it was the difficulty of the retrieval process that determined their response ▯ ▯ We as humans are easily manipulated ▯ Introspection ▯ 1. we cannot accurately describe the effect of a stimulus on our thinking process ▯ 2. when we are reporting an effect of a stimulus on our thought process, we often rely on a priori theories rather than on an accurate account of the stimulus effect. ▯ 3. when are reports are correct, it is because of the employment of an incidentally correct priori theory ▯ ▯ Critique: not all cognitive processing activity is beyond our awareness. While system 1 processing can generally not be reported properly, system 2 thinking is more likely to evoke conscious representations. ▯ ▯ Two systems of thinking ▯ -System 1 Fast Thinking ▯ -System 2 Slow Thinking ▯ ▯ Properties of System 1  Operates quickly and automatically  No effort  No control ▯ Intuition ▯ Properties of System 2  Allocates attention  Slow  Effortful  Complex computation  If attention is drawn away, the process is interrupted ▯ Controlled cognition ▯ ▯ System one and system two working together ▯ 23 x 26 = ? ▯ Identify the numbers and symbols (1) ▯ ▯ Exercise: If it takes 5 machines 5 minutes to make 5 things, how long does it take 100 machines to make 100 things? ▯ ▯ System one: 100 automatically ▯ System two: think about it, associate the numbers, 5 is the answer ▯ ▯


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