Geography Week 10 notes
Geography Week 10 notes 1310.257
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1310.257 at Texas State University taught by Dr. Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geography at Texas State University.
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SubSaharan Africa Learning Objectives List the characteristics that make SubSaharan Africa a distinct world region Summarize the major ecosystems in the region and how humans have adapted to living in them Describe the factors that have made wildlife conservation and tourism important aspects of the region’s economy Explain the region’s rapid demographic growth and describe the differential impact of HIV/AIDS upon the region Summarize various cultural influences of African peoples within the region and globally Describe the relationship between ethnicity and conflict in this region and the strategies for maintaining peace Asses the roots of African poverty and explain why many of the fastestgrowing economies in the world today are in SubSaharan Africa List the major resources of the region, especially metals and fossil fuels, and describe how they are impacting the region’s development Key Concepts Desertification Transhumance Biofuels HIV/AIDS Swidden Pastoralism Tsetse flies Apartheid Berlin Conference African Union Tribalism Refugees Physiography Plateau continent Variable rainfall Set of Great Lakes Rift system Mt. Kilimanjaro Craters National Parks Serengeti Plains Soils, not best fertility Several major river basins No major mountain range Savanna and steppe vegetation Environmental geography the plateau continent Largest landmass straddling the equator Dominated by extensive areas of geologic uplift Lowlands prevail in west Africa Immense biodiversity, vast water resources, and wealth of precious minerals Relatively poor soils Plateaus and Basins Plateaus and elevated basins dominate the African interior High Africa=inland; Low Africa= coast Watersheds Congo, Niger, Nile, Zambezi Soils Relatively infertile Climate and Vegetation Seasonality Tropical wet and dry Wet Climates Tropical forests Deforestation not as extensive as in Latin America and Southeast Asia Savannas Deserts Environmental Issues Desertification Prolonged drought Overgrazing Colonial influence on agriculture Sahel Zone of ecological transition Transhumance Deforestation Increased runoff Soil erosion Shortage of biofuels Wildlife habitat NGOs and Green Belt Movements Wildlife reserves East Africa South Africa CITES Ban on ivory trade Wildlife under Threat Many threatened species Northern white rhinoceros African elephant African lion Internal and external factors Bioconservation and sustainable development a challenge Africa Big 5 Parks South African Safari Park – recent attacks and deaths Population and Culture SubSaharan Africa Africa south of the Sahara Desert 48 states plus one territory Young population Known for poverty, disease, violence, and refugees Population trends Decline in child mortality Legacy of the AIDS epidemic Family size Cultural Richness and Variety Hundreds of ethnic groups State boundaries rarely coincide with ethnic group boundaries More ethnic groups than states Cultural Coherence and Diversity: Unity Through Adversity SubSaharan African identity Slavery Colonialism Struggles for independence and development Diverse political, religious, and language systems Language This realm: About 48 countries 13002000 languages Language and identity Historically been highly unstable Tribes – language and affiliation European languages Religion Animist religions Catchall term Centered on the worship of nature and ancestral spirits Great internal diversity within animist traditions Interaction between religious traditions Conflict in Nigeria South Sudan separated from the country of Sudan in 2011 Religion is not typically the cause of overt conflict Malaria Africa’s and the World’s deadliest vectored disease 300 million affected globally 1 million die of malaria annually Mostly children under 5 Declining mortality rates Insecticidetreated bed nets, education, and vaccinations Battling against AIDS 35 million people, including 3.2 million children are HIV positive (2013) 69% of worlds HIV total (SubSaharan Africa) High rates of infection Social and economic implications Antiretroviral therapies AIDS prevention education Patterns of settlement and land use Subsistence agriculture Swidden Export agriculture Pastoralism Tsetse flies Agriculture and Subsistence Farming Most SubSaharan Africans rely on farming for living 63% live in small villages/rural areas World hunger issue Political and Economic Geography European Colonization Settlement th Mid19 century (1800s) Why so much later in time than the Americas? Armies and the disease factor Endemic diseases Malaria, sleeping sickness Quinine bark, 1850s Cinchona The scramble for Africa Berlin Conference 1884, 13 countries, to avoid war over Africa Who present? Strictly European at this meeting No African tribes were represented at this meeting AngloZulu Wars 18791896 S. Africa Zulu: Resisted British invasion Decolonization and Independence 1957 beginnings of decolonization Mid1960s virtually the entire region had achieved independence Organization of African Unity 1963 renamed African Union (AU) in 2002 Southern Africa’s independence battles The end of apartheid (policy of racial separateness, lasted 50 years) Whites had political freedom, blacks not citizens 1994 free elections, Nelson Mandela (had been imprisoned for 27 years) Orderly elections since then Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) Angola, Mozambique – rebelled against Portugal Enduring Political and Ethnic conflict The tyranny of the map Tribalism vs the state Refugees Internally displaced persons (IDPs) Ethnic conflicts Secessionist movements Dislocated Populations Largest refugee population in world today From Sudan’s to Zimbabwe 21,300 individual asylum applications were lodged by unaccompanied or separated children in 2012, the highest number on record according to the UNHCR. Democratic Republic of the Congo Largest state SubSaharan Africa by territory Ethnic/political conflict 19982010 5.4 million deaths Rwanda and Uganda involvement Foreign Aid: 28% GNI Barriers to peace: Limited experiences, small economy, armed groups and crime, corruption, little infrastructure Somalia Divided 1991, government disintegrated, failed state Clans, warlords Social units that are branches of a tribe or an ethnic group larger than a family Somaliland, Puntland 1990s Not yet recognized IDPs (Internally Displaced Persons) – 20% of population About 2 million Pirates in Gulf of Aden Somalia and area Ethnic groups, Islamic extremists, governments Mogadishu Islamic insurgents and wellarmed militias UN efforts Complete secessions in region Eritrea, South Sudan Rwanda Genocide April to July 1994 800,000 minority Tutsis and moderate Hutus perished in the Rwandan genocide, perhaps as many as threequarters of the Tutsi population Hutu Wealthy and took control in the 1960s In control Majority was Tutsis Peasants Genocide the deliberate killing of people who belong to a particular racial, political, or cultural group Measuring Social Development Child mortality and life expectancy (decreasing) Meeting educational needs Millennium Development Goals Goals set by the UN to help Africa overcome poverty 2/3 (66%) live on $2 or less a day Women and Development Development issues African Women in the Workforce and politics Informal sectors Street traders Roots of African Poverty: How did it begin in the world? Historical and institutional factors rather than environmental circumstances Slave trade Estimated 10,000,000 people were taken to the “New World” The majority were men Colonization Failed development policies Corruption Kleptocracy State in which corruption is so initialized that most politicians and government officials siphon off huge % of country’s wealth Economic Growth Half dozen countries among fastest growing in the world today By 2020, most likely will have recorded the fastest economic growth of all geographic realms China – impact expanding in Africa Areas: education to investment to trade nd Angola – in 2010, was China’s top oil supplier; since then has been 2 (behind Saudi Arabia and ahead of Iran) Brazil – also increasing its presence in Africa A number of lowincome Subsaharan African countries have been major revenue increases from raw material exports Natural Resources and Foreign interest Rich in raw materials Economies – extraction of the raw materials Not manufacturing and assembly Foreign interest expanding greatly Supporting Economic Growth Needs infrastructure Network of highways, railroad systems, ways to traverse its few rivers Internal trade on 13% of total trade 37% urban Least urbanized realm in world Shipping a car Which would you choose? Ship from China or Oklahoma to San Antonio? In Africa Shipping a new car from China to Tanzania is EASIER than transferring Tanzania to Uganda? Economic Differentiation within Africa South Africa Oil and mineral producers The leaders of ECOWAS Life for the region’s poorest Summary The largest landmass straddling the equator, Africa is called the plateau continent because it is dominated by extensive uplifted plains Key environmental issues facing this tropical region are desertification, deforestation, and drought Within nearly 900 million people, SubSaharan Africa is the fastestgrowing region in terms of population. Yet it is also the poorest region, with twothirds of its people living on less than $2 a day. Culturally, SubSaharan Africa is an extremely diverse region, where multiethnic and multi religious societies are the norm. With a few exceptions, religious diversity and tolerance has been a distinctive feature of the region Most states have been independent for 50 years, and in that time pluralistic, but distinct, national identities have been forged Since 1995, numerous bloody ethnic and political conflicts have occurred in the region. Fortunately, peace now exists in many conflictridden areas. However, ongoing ethnic and territorial disputes in some areas have produced millions of internally displaced persons and refugees In terms of contemporary economic globalization, SubSaharan Africa’s connections to the global economy are weak. With 12 percent of the world’s population, the region accounts for only about 2 percent of the world’s economic activity Poverty is the region’s most pressing issue. Since 2000, SubSaharan economies have grown, led in part by higher commodity prices, greater investment, debt forgiveness, and the end of some of the longestrunning conflicts in the region. Social indicators of development are also improving, due to greater attention from the international community and better access to health care and drugs to fight HIV/AIDS. Southwest Asia and North Africa Learning objectives Describe how the regions fragile, often arid, setting shapes the regions contemporary environmental challenges Explain how latitude and topography produce the region’s distinctive patterns of climate Describe four distinctive ways in which people have learned to adapt to the region’s rural environment Summarize the major forces shaping recent migration patterns within the region List the major characteristics and patterns of diffusion of Islam Identify the key modern religions and language families that dominate the region Describe the local impacts of the Arab Spring rebellions in different regional settings Identify the role of cultural variables in understanding key regional conflicts in Israel, Syria, Iraq Summarize the geography of oil and gas reserves in the region Describe traditional roles of Islamic women and provide examples of recent changes for women Key Concepts Cultural hearths OPEC Islam Fertile Crescent Exotic rivers Brain Drain Physiological density Monotheism Quran Hajj Theocratic state Shiites Sunnis Ottoman Empire Suez Canal Palestinian Authority Introduction Climate, culture, and oil resources help define the region Early center for agriculture, civilizations, and major world religions Key global culture hearth Physical Environment Plate tectonics, topography Climate Ecosystems Human impacts Continental Rift Valley SW of Red Sea 1500m high fault scarp between the plateau and the rift valley where active volcanoes are located Environmental Geography Life in a Fragile World Complex physical setting Legacy of human settlement Enduring mark on physical environment Increasingly difficult ecological problems in the decades ahead Lengthy human settlement in a marginal land Deforestation and overgrazing Salinization Population and Culture Cultural hearths Population and settlement patterns Religion: origination, diffusion, conflicts language Cultural Hearths Area of historical significance from which new cultural ideas, innovations, and technologies diffused to other parts of the world Early centers of civilization, agriculture, and major world religions Several of world’s greatest ancient civilizations River Valleys Mesopotamia Nile River Valley Cultural Coherence and Diversity: Signatures of Complexity Cultural Diversity Religion Language Water and Life: Rural Settlement Patterns Fertile Crescent Pastoral Nomadism Transhumance Oasis life Exotic rivers The Geography of Population Physiological density – the number of people per unit area of arable land Urban challenges Tehran, Iran Northeast Edge of Cairo, Egypt One of the newest housing developments High residential density in a dessert Major issues Water supply Population growth twice of that in U.S. ManyLayered Landscapes: The Urban Imprint Location of many of the world’s oldest urban places Center of political and religious authority Focal points for trade Signatures of globalization Contrasts in Dubai United Arab Emirates World Religions Source of 3 Judaism Christianity Islam Sunni About 89% of Muslims st Follow tradition of 1 four successors of Muhammad Dominant in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria Shi’a of Shiite About 11% of Muslims Believe Muhammad’s soninlaw, Ali, is rightful successor Dominant in Iran and southern Iraq In both forms – revival of fundamentalist Want to maintain purity of faith Separate from western influence Patterns of Religion Hearth of the JudeoChristian tradition Monotheism Emergence of Islam Quran Hajj Theocratic state Shiites Sunnis Political and Economic Geography Summary of Realm Conflict over water and supplies High population growth rates Volatile transition zones Conflict over boundaries Geopolitical Framework: Neverending tensions Arab Spring Motivations for the rebellion Accusations of corrupt government Limited opportunities for free elections and democracy Rapidly increasing food prices Widespread poverty and high unemployment Young people and technology Ongoing conflicts IsraeliPalestinian relations Iran and nuclear ambitions Iraq Religion and Ethnicity conflicts Israel Zionism late 1800s Sociopolitical movement that Jews should have a nation state of own in SW Asia Arabs (descendants of Abraham and Ishmael) and Jew (Israel – descendants of Abraham and Isaac) Struggle over territorial occupation Modern Geopolitical Issues The ArabIsraeli Impasse After World War II, the United Nations divided the region into two states One mostly Jewish One mostly Muslim Multiple wars with neighboring states Colonial Legacy Modern boundaries were formed by colonial powers Boundaries did not recognize cultural diversity Legacy of instability and conflict Arab Countries vs. Israel Arab area 650 times greater, in terms of territory The average per capita GDP in Arab countries is $3,700 versus $18,000 for Israel This despite the fact that many Arab counties have world’s richest oil resources Arab Terror Groups AlGama’a alIslamiyya AlQa’ida Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine FatahRevolutionary Council Fatah Tanzim Force 17 Hamas Hizballah Jihab Group Martyrs of alAqsa Palestinian Authority (PA) Palestinian Islamic Jihad Popular front for the liberation of Palestine Popular front for the liberation of Palestine – general command Modern Geopolitical issues Across North Africa Interplay between political and religious institutions Protesters press for democratic and economic reforms Economic and Social Development: Lands of Wealth and Poverty Wealthy countries due to rich reserves of petroleum and natural gas Other nations among the world’s least developed Alternatives to broaden economic base Political instability contributes to a struggling economy Natural Resources Oil and natural gas – some countries have abundance Great wealth for some, but does not raise overall standard of living Regional economic patterns Higherincome oil exports Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates Lowerincome oil exporters Algeria, Iraq, and Iran Prospering without oil Israel, Turkey Israeli HighTech industry Regional patterns of poverty Sudan, Egypt, Yemen Brain drain Cairo Slums A woman’s changing world Traditionally women Are not found in large numbers in the workforce Work inside the home Fall behind in education rates Changes for women Participating in the Arab Spring rebellions Pursuing highlevel careers More visible social position Summary Southwest Asia and North Africa have played a critical role in the world history and in the processes of globalization that bind the planet together ever more tightly In ancient times, the region was home to early examples of crop and livestock domestication, as well as some of the world’s earliest urban centers. Three of the world’s great religions – Judaism, Christianity, and Islam – also emerged beneath its desert skies The region has faced difficulty and high costs in trying to expand its limited supplies of agricultural land and water resources amid fastgrowing populations Political conflicts have disrupted economic development across the region. Civil wars, conflicts between states, and regional tensions have worked against plans for greater cooperation and trade The region must deal with the basic inconsistencies between Western civilization and more fundamentalist interpretations of Islam, as well as with finding a lasting solution to the Israeli Palestinian conflict As the recent Arab Spring rebellions demonstrate, future cultural and political change is difficult to anticipate. It will be guided by a complex response to Western influences, a mix of fascination and suspicion that will produce its own unique regional geography Southwest Asia and North Africa will retain its distinctive regional identity, a character defined by its environmental setting, the rich cultural legacy of its history, the selective abundance of its natural resources, and its continuing political problems.