Psychology Week 13 Notes
Psychology Week 13 Notes Psyc 2010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Psychological Disorders Psychopathology - Nearly 50% of people will suffer from some type of psychopathology. - Most Common: o Mood Disorders & Anxiety Disorders - 25-35% of the population o Substance Abuse Disorders o Impulse Control Disorders - 7% are Severely affected What Causes Psychological Disorders - Diathesis-Stress Model: 2 mainly biological/environmental factors. o Diathesis: a vulnerability that makes you more likely to develop a psychological disorder. - It could be caused by a biological function in our genes or an environmental factor like childhood trauma, going to war, or experiencing emotional abuse. Even if you lack the diathesis, you can still develop a disorder. o Stress acts like a catalyst to the diathesis. - Low infrequent stress leads to a low probability of emergence. - High frequent stress leads to a high probability of emergence. o Biological & environmental components of mental health disorders - Schizophrenia is more so due to biological factors, whereas anxiety is generally due to environmental factors. 3 Ways to Approaching & Understanding Disorders - Biological factors: influence brain chemistry and neurotransmission. - Cognitive factors: influence thoughts, attention, and behavior. - Situational experiences: lead to the development of the disorder. Anxiety Disorders - Biological factors o An increased sympathetic nervous system which could be treated with drugs to increase the parasympathetic nervous system. o A hyperactive amygdala (threat response) can be treated with drugs to calm it. - Cognitive components o Increased attention to fearful stimuli o Persistent thoughts about feared stimulus - Situational factors o Phobias strongly influenced by conditioning (to treat they break the connection with the phobia) Mood Disorder - Biological Components: o Serotonin is less effective or there’s a lower amount (a treatment example is Prozac). - Biological Rhythms: o Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), people are affected by the amount of sunlight that is available. - Cognitive Components: o Negativity about self, situation, and future. These people generally believe things are worse than they are. o Learned helplessness- people try to increase Serotonin by making yourself feel happy, but people who have learned helplessness do not. Ex) Seligman & his dogs - Situational factors o Death & loss are strong factors due to development of depression Recognizing Disordered Behavior - Must have all 3 of the following criteria for a behavior to be classified as a disorder: o Deviant: Irregular behavior, makes you different from other people. o Distressing: behavior that hurts you. o Dysfunctional/maladaptive: behavior that interferes with your life, relationships, and job. Ex) OCD meets all 3 criteria - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) o A classification system for a broad range of disorders. o There are systematic guidelines for each disorder. o It was developed by the APA (American Psychological Association). o DSM-V has already been developed because psychologists are constantly gathering new information. - DSM-IV o Major Depressive Disorder - Must have 5 of the following symptoms for 2+ weeks. Must have symptom 1 or 2. - Symptoms: 1. Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day as a subjective report or observation. 2. Diminished pleasure in day to day activities. (Anhedonia) 3. Weight loss or gain. 4. Insomnia 5. Loss of energy 6. Excessive guilt & worthlessness 7. Diminished ability to think or concentrate 8. Recurring thoughts of death or suicide with or without a plan o Exclusionary Criteria - Symptoms do not meet criteria for a mixed episode. - Symptoms cause clinically significant distress/impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of function. - Symptoms aren’t due to direct effects of a substance or medical condition, for example Hypothyroidism. - Symptoms aren’t better accounted for by a loss of a loved one, etc. o What makes up the DSM-IV - Classification system for disorders - Guidelines for each disorder - Focus on diagnosis and prognosis Doesn’t explain causes (etiology) or suggest treatments. - Analysis on 5 Axis (which is not in the DSM-V) 2 - DSM-IV Analysis on 5 Axis o Axis I: Acute (symptoms wax and wane) psychological disorders. Depression, Anxiety, Schizophrenia o Axis II: Chronic (daily symptoms) mental disorders. Personality Disorder, Developmental Delays, Schizophrenia o Axis III: General medical conditions relevant to psychological disorders. Cancer, Epilepsy, Obesity, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s o Axis IV: Psychosocial or environmental problems. Unemployment, divorce, homelessness o Axis V: General Functioning (0-100). Social, psychological, occupational Rating of 1 means danger of hurting oneself or others Rating of 100 means superior functioning - DSM-V Changes o No Axis, all thrown together. o No more Medical Conditions (ex: saying someone is bisexual is a medical condition) o GAF is gone because it had poor psychometric properties and lacked conceptual clarity, it was replaced with WHODAS (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule) which assesses illness related to disability. - DSM-V Classifying Disorders o Pros: high agreement among various clinicians, useful for research on mental health o Cons: implies illness which can lead to stigmatization, cross-category diagnosis (depression and anxiety), categorical rather than dimensional Assessing Psychological Disorders (depends on how an individual comes into contact with a mental health professional.) - Emergency room visit o Mental health status exam: doesn’t result in a diagnosis, it is a snapshot into a patients psychological functioning. o Behavioral observations: grooming, eye contact, mood, speech, tremors/twitches, memory, and thought content. - Referral o Structured clinical interview for DSM: a series of questions to assess presence of symptoms (SCID). Based on DSM criteria. o Unstructured: based on clinicians past experience, often results in various diagnosis among clinicians, can have error. - Observational o Psychological testing (self-report): same problems as all self-report measures. Faking good vs faking bad (acting like you have more/less symptoms than you actually do). o Neuropsychological Assessment: assess planning, coordinating motor responses, and memory. Used to assess impairments with particular regions of the brain. 3
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