Hist1020 Twentieth-Century China
Hist1020 Twentieth-Century China World history II
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to World history II at Auburn University taught by Dr. Cathleen Giustino in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see World History 2C in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Twentieth-Century China Study Questions I. What are general characteristics of the government and economy in the People’s Republic of China? II. What was the history of Jiang Jeishi? III. What was the Cultural Revolution? IV. What did Deng Xiaoping think of free-enterprise and democracy? I. Intro A. Red book we are reading a. Refer to this lecture for background on the book. Know the main character and what happens in the story line. B. Background a. Before WWII, Europe had global hegemony b. After WWII, the US and SU competed for global hegemony in the Cold War that lasted till November 9, 1989 (this info can be on exam). c. After WWII, the third country rising up is the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). i. Still exists today ii. Still a leading global power (nobody has global hegemony). C. PRC a. 1949 (Promise question), PRC began b. PRC is not the same as the Republic of China; this is a different government in China. c. PRC is also known as communist China d. First leader and creator of PRC is Mao Zedong (1893-1976) II. Study Question 1(I): What are general characteristics of the government and economy in the People’s Republic of China? A. General characteristics of the government of the PRC a. Democracy: has universal adult suffrage, multi-party rule and parliament for law making. b. Communist China: has a parliament elected by universal adult suffrage. There is only one political party that can run in elections. This is authoritarian. c. Communist Party of China i. Largely borrowed from Lenin and Bolshevik ii. Since 1949, this hasn’t changed. Still single-party communist rule. B. General characteristic of the economy in PRC a. Have a command economy b. Did start out with command economy in 1949 but since 1978 (know this), the government of the PRC has begun to allow some changes in economy i. The government has begun to allow some elements of free enterprise by combining elements of command economy. ii. This is a mixed economy: elements of more than one type of economic systems (since 1978). iii. Command economy: everything is controlled by the government C. Long-term origins of PRC a. Jumping back to 1911. For 2,000 years prior, china was ruled by emperors. b. In 1911, revolutionary events ended rule of emperors in China. The last ones were members of the Qing Dynasty. c. Qing Dynasty came to power 1644 and ended 1911. i. Overthrown by Chinese nationalist movement. ii. This proves European ideology spread over world d. Leader of Chinese nationalist movement was Sun Yat-sen i. He tightened up and transformed the movement into an official Chinese nationalists political party ii. This was the Chinese National Party or Guomindang (GMD) 1912 iii. In 1912 he took over the government of China and renamed it to the Republic of China and lasted till 1949 was PRC became the new government (communist) iv. Sun Yat-sen died 1925, he was replaced by Chinese nationalist, Jiang Jeishi. III. Study Question 2 (II): What was the history of Jiang Jeishi? A. Jiang Jeishi a. Very devoted to GMD b. Didn’t want any political opponents. c. During 1920s, a new opponent began to emerge and grow in strength. This was the Chinese communist party which was younger. d. 1921, Chinese communist party was created by Chen Duxiu e. Chen Duxiu and Mao i. Followed Lenin ii. Mao Zedong was a follower of Chen Duxiu. iii. Mao rose to high in rank that in 1943, he became the leader; chairman of the Chinese communist party. iv. Mao changed the Leninist ideals to fit china. 1. During early years, there was little industry and workers; the majority of the population were peasants 2. Revised this to make it work for a country with a large peasant population (Peasant revolution, not proletariat, etc.) 3. Mao also won a large following for the communists. f. Jiang hated them for this; didn’t want opposition i. Tried to eradicate the communists ii. This was hard because the communists were using guerilla tactics. He remained obsessed with eradicating them iii. Efforts were interrupted in 1937 by a grave attack on republic of china. iv. Japan launched an all-out invasion in 1937 on China. 1. This was a part of Japan building their overseas empire. nd 2. Marked the beginning of the 2 Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). B. 2 ndSino-Japanese War a. 1937-1945 b. During WWII c. Nationalists and communists actually cooperated enough to defeat Japan d. Ended September 1945 because Japan was defeated by US, SU and GB. e. When it ended, fighting resumed but it was between the communists and nationalists. f. Chinese Civil War took place till 1949. i. Chinese communists won and took over the government. ii. Jiang Jeishi survived and fled to Formosa (modern Taiwan) where he set up a new nationalist government. iii. Jiang changed his name iv. He had harsh rule over Taiwan until 1975. Taiwan government loosened up and had multi-party rule and free-enterprise v. Mao gave the country the name of Peoples Republic of China. vi. Led by single-party rule under communist party of china. Was chairman till 1976. g. In 1949, the economy was very agricultural with very little industry and he was very interested in industrializing to strengthen PRC home and abroad. h. In 1950s, Mao devoted much attention to industry for economy of PRC. When he chose to do this, he decided to do so by following economic policies of Stalin in SU. i. Built command economy ii. Stalin created 5 year plans and Mao borrowed and undertook 2 of these in the 1950s to rapidly industrialize china i. First 5 year plan Mao used 1953-1958 i. Nationalizing of industry (making private industrial properties/resources property/resources of the state) ii. Collectivization: two-step process that pertains to farmland. 1. Private plots of land are taken away from private owners and given to the state (forcibly). 2. Combining plots of land into large lands of which peasants had to work. They often didn’t work hard because they had no incentive to do so. 3. This plan was only slightly effective. j. Second 5 years plan of Mao used 1959-1962 i. Aka the Great Leap Forward ii. Bring about rapid and better industrial growth iii. Special attention was given to steel production. Wanted as much as possible. Collective farms were producing steel over food often. iv. This was declared over after 4 years because it was a tremendous failure. v. This ended up known as the Great Leap Famine 1. Farms weren’t paying attention to food and not enough was being grown 2. Peasants didn’t feel motivated to work hard in farming due to no incentive 3. Estimated about 30 mil people died because of this (starvation). 4. Some survivors survived via cannibalism. vi. During first half of 1950s, Mao suffered much criticism and he didn’t like being criticized. This was a challenge to his power. 1. People were suggesting a new chairman and Mao didn’t like this so he created the program: Cultural Revolution, in order to preserve his position as chairman and preserve his power IV. Study Question 3 (III): What was the Cultural Revolution? A. Cultural Revolution a. this was a reign of terror in which thousands died and millions persecuted b. Began 1966 till he died in 1976 c. Mao officially proclaimed this was a program to modernize China in order to get rid of the “Four Olds”. i. The Four Olds: things holding china back from modernization. Traditions he wanted to get rid of. This is was he said was the official reason but unofficially it served to eliminate those criticizing Mao and strike fear into the hearts of those who think that they might wasn’t to oppose him (similar to purge Stalin unleashed). d. Thousands executed for appearing or actually speaking out against him. e. Many were sent to camps for “re-education” f. Mao received special assistance by “The Red Guards” i. The red guards were young people in Chinese society, mostly loyal students. ii. They believed he would make china a better place. Others joined for opportunistic reasons (loyalty will lead to good government jobs). iii. They could be known by their uniforms and the “little red book” they all carried. 1. the little red book was full of sayings by Mao iv. They see themselves as Chinese revolutionary vanguard. g. With Mao’s death in 1976, a new era is appearing. i. After his death, the PRC didn’t break from single-party authoritarian rule. ii. They did break from having a pure command economy. h. Breaking into mixed economy i. After 1976. This is a mix of command economy and free enterprise. ii. 1/3 (over ½ of the wealth) was based on free enterprise and 2/3 command economy. iii. Deng Xiaoping led this economic reform V. Study Question 4 (IV): What did Deng Xiaoping think of free-enterprise and democracy? A. Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) reforms a. One of founding members of communist party b. He was a logical choice as Mao replacement and that’s what happened c. 1978, Deng started transforming the Chinese economy. d. Denounced the Four Olds e. Replaced these with the Four Modernizations: i. Military ii. Agriculture iii. Industry iv. Science and technology f. 4 policies to modernize Chinese economy. i. De-collectivization: reverse of collectivization, allowing for some small private free-enterprise. ii. Opened to foreign investors iii. Allowed for some free-enterprise in industry iv. Promoted consumer goods g. These radically changed life in china and very quickly h. 5 thmodernization was called by Wei Jingshang i. Electrician in trade ii. Political modernization iii. This was allowing freedom of speech iv. This also called for democracy v. He called for this by presenting a poster on a wall called democracy wall vi. Democracy wall: in Beijing (capitol), established by Deng. He didn’t want this to be used in this way. He wanted it to be used as a place to criticize Mao and Cultural Revolution. vii. Deng didn’t like this but others did. In response, a democracy movement arose in china, Spring 1979. viii. Beijing Spring: for democracy and free speech ix. Deng didn’t like this so December 1979, he shut down democracy wall and arrested leaders of Beijing Spring. This remained suppressed through 1980s but reignited in 1989. Students led this movement x. The central gathering place of these students was Tiananmen Square (Beijing, June 3-4, 1989). 1. This called for democracy xi. They weren’t willing to loosen up hold on the government. xii. June 3-4, 1989, they rolled tanks onto the Square and squashed the movement. 100s died, 1000s arrested. i. Current leader of PRC i. Xi Jinping (leader since 2012) ii. Determined to build powerful mixed economy iii. Determined to maintain single-party rule iv. Difficult to balance mixed economy with authoritarian rule.
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