GEOG4: Lecture 1&2 (Week 2 Notes)
GEOG4: Lecture 1&2 (Week 2 Notes) Geography 4
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alda Sianipar on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 4 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Eric Sheppard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
GEOG4 Lecture 1 Globalization? Spread of ideas, resources and technologies around the world Growing interconnections of nations around the globe Countries interacting Interdependence of countries Diffusion of ideas/resources. Uneven/assymetric Meshing of standards and cultures across borders Uniform interdependence, labor ties, currencies When did it begin? Started when trades commenced, when transportation and communication first developed th 16 century Always existed Advantages Creates efficiencies; specialization of regions Job loss Advancement in technologies Disadvantages Forces development of backward nations Loss of tax base Global awareness; open-mindedness Increasing inequalities/ exploitation Neocolonialism of South African countries Uneven Geographies of Globalization Production of iPhone Apple Inc. at Cupertino, CA -> Foxconn Technologies Factory at Shenzhen, China. Taiwanese company -> Hengshui Exit (Steele Factory), North China -> Iron from northwestern Australia -> Rare metal from Eastern Congo Shenzhen: fastest growing city in the world. Used to be fishing village. In 25 yrs 13 billion people lived there Foxconn factory: inhumane working conditions Hebei Iron & Steel: Western Australia: Fly-in, Fly-Out Miners Coltan mining: Democratic Republic of Congo; Rwandan supported M23 rebels Mango Mango HQ at Sevilla, Spain -> Mango Global Logistics (shipping) -> Produced in Rana Plaza, Bangalore LECTURE 2 - Globalization Practice - Globalization Discourses o New: has been around, but a term coined just recently o Inevitable: we as individuals cannot challenge/shape globalization? o Leveling: levels the playing field; tracing a flat world. But why are inequalities increasing? - Globalization vs. globalization - Neoliberalism? o Free markets rule where politics and socialism has no opportunity to shape things - Economy, Geography, g/Globalization 1. Capitalism: The Basics - Capitalism as the last step of economic evolution; highest form of human progress Key Characteristics - Private ownership of economic assets; you have control over your own labor (human rights) - Production of commodities (produced for consumption of others), for profit (to improve MY economic situations) - Markets (supply meets demand) - Free labor markets - Pre-existing economic classes: capitalists (factory owners), workers (produce commodities), landlords (renting out their lands), resource owners (resources used to produce commodities) Views - Pro-capitalist discourses (18 -19 century) o John Locke: freedom and ownership of individual private property o Adam Smith: “invisible hand”; in a competitive market where everybody acts on behalf of self- interest; allocation of resources that is best for everybody o David Ricardo: benefits of free international trade; free movement of resources/goods from one country to another; taking Adam Smith’s idea to international markets - Critical perspectives (Marx) o Karl Marx: The Cycle of Capitalist Production (see notes) - Cycle of Production o Primary Sector: mining, agriculture, fisheries, forestry (primary commodities; biophysical world) o Secondary Sector: manufacture, intermediate manufactures, consumer manufactures (factories) o Tertiary Sector: Retailing, services, producer services, consumer services (help get products get sold). Personalized services (cinemas, haircuts) o Quaternary Sector: administrative and management activities - Production of a SURPLUS; be-all end-all; economic growth o In quantity terms (more stuff, more commodities); orientation towards growth o In exchange value (profit); make more money; opportunities to expand o In labor hours (surplus value) - Outcomes o Growth oriented o Expansionist o Political struggle: fighting over slices of economic surplus pie chart o States (government) intervene o Producing/shaped by geographies - Variants of capitalism o Neoliberal “free market” capitalism o Coordinated capitalism: agreements between unions, governments and businesses; political process through which decisions are made in economies o Corporate capitalism: large corporations are making too much profit; too much monopoly power o State capitalism: e.g. China. Central govt is powerful in controlling businesses. State is heavily involved 2. The geographical perspective - Spatiality: o Space: territories, place. How things vary from place to place? o Connectivity: the way places are connected. Transportation, communication routes; move people, goods, ideas o Geographical scale: individual households (micro), cities…. Nations, global. What’s going on at these diff. levels? - Economy/politics/culture - Nature/economy o World’s biophysical resources o Global warming - Explaining geographical inequality o Place-based explanations: poor places, rich places (nations). What you have/don’t have there decides. Poor places need to learn from rich places to be successful -> Structural Adjustment Policies: reduce role of state and make space for privatized market. Not really about physical geography. Includes culture, politics o Connectivity-based explanations: chance/opportunity on involvement with globalization. Forget the history, o look at what is there now. 3. The global economy today - Geography of the contemporary global economy o Uneven geographical development Land area/nations; population (higher in Asian countries) GDP/GNI per capita PPP = GDP per capita; adjusted for costs of living GDP per capita growth: concentrated in East Asia
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