Intro to Crim Justice ch 12 notes and vocab
Intro to Crim Justice ch 12 notes and vocab CCJ 2020
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ryan Desjardins on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CCJ 2020 at Florida State University taught by Elizabeth Borkowski in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Criminal Justice in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University.
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Chapter 12 Notes & Vocab Prison Life: Living In and Leaving Prison Vocab 1. Total Institution- A regimented, dehumanizing institution such as a prison, in which inmates are kept in social isolation, cut off from the world at large. 2. Inmate Subculture- The loosely defined culture that pervades prisons and has its own norms, rules, and language. 3. Inmate Social Code- An unwritten code of behavior, passed from older inmates to younger ones, that serves as a guideline to appropriate inmate behavior within the correctional institution. 4. Prisonization- Assimilation into the separate culture in the prison that has its own set of rewards and behaviors, as well as its own norms, rules, and language. The traditional prison culture is now being replaced by a violent gang culture. 5. Make Believe Family- In female institutions, the substitute family group- including faux father, mother, and siblings-created by some inmates. 6. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)- A treatment approach that focuses on patterns of thinking and beliefs to help people become conscious of their own thoughts and behaviors so they can make positive changes. 7. Therapeutic Communities- Institutions that rely on positive peer pressure within a highly structured social environment to create positive inmate change. 8. Work Release- A prison treatment program that allows inmates to be released during the day to work in the community and then return to prison at night. 9. Furlough- A correctional policy that allows inmates to leave the institution for vocational or educational training, for employment, or to maintain family ties. 10.Hands Off Doctrine- The legal practice of allowing prison administrators a free hand to run the institution, even if correctional practices violate inmates' constitutional rights; ended with the onset of the prisoners' rights movement in the 1960's. 11.Substantive Rights- A number of civil rights that the courts, through a slow process of legal review, have established for inmates, including the rights to receive mail and medical benefits and to practice their religion. 12.Jailhouse Lawyer- An inmate trained in law or otherwise educated who helps other inmate prepare legal briefs or appeals. 13.Cruel and Unusual Punishment- Physical punishment or punishment that is far in excess of that given to people under similar circumstances and is therefore th banned by the 8 Amendment. The death penalty has so far not been considered cruel and unusual if it is administered in a fair and nondiscriminatory fashion. 14.Parole- The early release of a prisoner from imprisonment, subject to conditions set by a parole board. 15.Parole Board- A panel of people who decide whether an offender should be released from prison on parole after serving the minimum portion of their sentence ordered by the sentencing judge. PowerPoint Notes Life In Prison Harsh and demanding Large, fortress-like facilities Cramped conditions Meaningful treatment does not really exist Recidivism rates are shockingly high Prison may ‘encourage’ future criminal behavior Men in Prison They cope by... 1. Learning/adapting to the prison routine 2. Realizing their lifestyle and activities could've contributed to their victimization 3. Continuing pre-incarcerated behavior 4. Violent offenders make violent inmates 5. Survival depends on the ability to identify and avoid risk Average profile of male inmates include.... 1. Age of 29-30 2. Come from single parent homes 3. 57% Black or Hispanic 4. Half have other family members in prison 10 types of male prisoners include... 1. The Mean Dude 2. The Radical 3. The Hedonist 4. The Colonist 5. The Opportunist 6. The Religious 7. The Retreatist 8. The Gang Bangers 9. The Legalist 10.The Realist Erving Goffman 1961 Studied prison life Coined the term total institution when describing prisons and mental hospitals. o Total Institution: An enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where inhabitants share all aspects of their daily lives. Goffman described total institutions as places where residents are cut off from the larger society either forcibly or willingly. They are small societies who evolve their own distinctive values and styles of life and pressure residents to fulfil rigidly prescribed behavioral roles. Prison Subculture Prison Subculture-The values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmates. Prison subculture has been found to be surprisingly consistent across the country. Prisons can be best described as “total institutions” where two structures exist... 1. Formal/Official Structure-Run by the institution with formal rules and structure. 2. Informal/Unofficial Structure-The structure within the prison and the inmates, which leads to the prison subculture. Prison Subcultures change constantly to reflect the concerns and experiences of the wider culture. 4 distinguishable subcultures... 1. Official 2. Traditional 3. Reform 4. Revolutionary Another element that shapes prison culture is the social structure of the prison. The Society of Captives Sykes argues that prison subcultures are the adaptation to deprivation and confinement, calls them the 'pains of imprisonment'. States prisoners are deprived of.... 1. Liberty 2. Goods and services 3. Heterosexual relationships 4. Autonomy 5. Personal Security Female Institutions Generally smaller and less harsh than male institutions. Lack of adequate programming and treatment facilities. Job training programs seldom exist. Complications related to children are evident. Female Inmates Average profile of female inmates include.... 1. Age 25-34 2. 63% black or hispanic 3. 47% never married 4. 1 in 4 are pregnant or recently gave birth 5. 83% only high school diploma Heffernan found that 3 terms used to describe female inmates... 1. The Square 2. The Cool 3. The Life Correctional Treatment 3 main types of correctional treatment... 1. Individual and Group Treatment- includes Anger Management, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), Faith-Based Programs, Drug Treatment, and HIV/AIDS Treatment 2. Educational Programs- First kind of prison treatment programs were educational, they vary in quality and intensity, and these programs benefit inside and outside of prison 3. Vocational Programs- includes Vocational Training, Work Release, Furloughs, the Private Prison Enterprise, and other Post-release Programs Correctional Officers Life of these officers are difficult. Controlling inmate behavior is a complex task, they have challenging working conditions, dual/conflicting roles like having to maintain security but also advocate for rehabilitation, and they have high levels of stress/opportunity. Female Correctional Officers • Does not diminish the security of the prison. • May be beneficial on the self image of inmates. • Assignment to male institutions is often a career enhancer for women. Prison Violence 2 types of violence 1. Individual Violence- shown through history of prior violence, age, psychological factors, prison conditions, lack of dispute resolution mechanisms, and a form of basic survival 2. Collective Violence a. Two theories... ~Inmate-balance theory- Riots and other forms of collective violence occur when prison officials make an abrupt effort to take control of the prison and limit freedoms. ~Administrative-control theory-the view that collective violence in prison may be caused by mismanagement, lack of strong security, and inadequate control by prison officials. Prisoners Rights (Important Court Cases) Johnson v Avery (1968) Holt v. Sarver (1969)-**Determined the Hands Off Doctrine** Cruz v Beto (1972) Wolff v McDonnell (1974) Pell v Procunier (1974) Procunier v Martinez (1974) Estelle v Gamble (1976) Bounds v Smith (1977) Wilson v Seiter (1991) Protections Protections give prisoners the right to... 1. Communication & Visitation 2. Religious Freedom 3. Access to the Courts and legal assistance 4. Medical Care 5. Protection from Harm 6. Institutional Punishment and Discipline