Reading: Hock 9- It’s Not Just About Salivating Dogs
Reading: Hock 9- It’s Not Just About Salivating Dogs APSY.UE.0002
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Reading: Hock 9- It’s Not Just About Salivating Dogs Ivan Pavlov developed the classical conditioning theory of learning Pavlov was originally researching the role of salivation on digestion Production of saliva when given dry/wet food was regarded by Pavlov as a reﬂex During his original experiment - noticed strange events dogs salivated before any food reached their mouths and before the odor of food was present After a while, dogs were salivating at times when no salivary stimulus was present at all The salivation reﬂex had somehow been altered through the dog’s experience in the lab Theoretical Propositions Theory: dogs has learned from experience in the lab to expect food from following the appearance of certain signals (Signal stimuli) Pavlov determined 2 kinds of relaxes must exist: Unconditioned Reﬂexes: inborn and automatic, requiring no learning and are generally the same for all members of a species Formed by an unconditional stimulus (UCS) producing an unconditional response (UCR) In Pavlov Studies: UCS = food ; UCR = salivation Conditioned Reﬂexes: acquired through experience or learning and may vary a great deal among individual members of a species Formed by a conditioned stimulus (CS) producing a conditioned response (CR) In Pavlov studies: CS = footsteps of person had brought food; CR = salivation Pavlov Asked the question: how are conditioned reﬂexes acquired? Theorized the footsteps were neutral stimulus (NS) that transformed into CS when combined with UCS (food) several times Method and Results Food = unconditioned stimulus that would elicit the unconditioned response of salivation Sound of metronome = neutral stimulus that was completely unrelated to food Over several conditioning trials, the dog was exposed to the ticking of the metronome and then was immediately presented with food After several trials, the metronome had become a conditioned stimulus for the conditioned response of salivation Diﬀerent unconditioned and neutral stimuli used in further experiments: odor of vanilla (NS) to the subjects prior to placing lemon juice like solution in the dog’s mouth (UCS) Juice caused heavy salivation : UCR After 20 pairings, vanilla alone produced salivation Visual Test: dogs exposed to an object that began to rotate just prior to the presentation of food After 5 pairings, the rotating object (CS) alone caused the dogs to salivate (CR) Signiﬁcant of the Findings Classical conditioning used to explain and interpret a wide range of human behavior ( phobias, source of emotion) Focuses on reﬂexive behavior Any reﬂex can be conditioned to occur to a previously neutral stimulus