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Asian Philosophy week 6

by: mattis.12

Asian Philosophy week 6 PHILOS 2120 - 0010

GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes cover Confucianism and Daodejing
Asian Philosophies
Steven Brown
Class Notes
Asian philosophy, philosophy, Confucianism, Daodejing
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by mattis.12 on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHILOS 2120 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Steven Brown in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Asian Philosophies in PHIL-Philosophy at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 04/04/16
Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Confucianism Confucius, again - “A man without virtue cannot long abide in adversity, nor can he long abide inn happiness; but the virtuous man is at rest in virtue, and the wise man covets it.” - Virtues are connected to vices • the types of virtues you have will come with weaknesses, temptations, vices, etc. - Nobody is ever truly virtuous • All of us are weak in our character, but that is okay because we can still use the idea of virtue as an ideal to strive toward - How do we obtain/learn virtue • two stage approach - childhood • relationships to parents, older siblings, aunt/uncles, grandparents, etc - Adulthood • Aristotle: Reflect upon the nature of virtues ad come to view them as valuable for their own sake. - Ritual • Honor - Hold up certain kinds of behavior Tradition • - Creates a sense of continuity, membership in a larger whole - Fun / Cathartic • Some benefits: enable us to express / live out our values / place in the world / attitudes to others and ourselves in a way that can’t happen in ordinary life. - Music • affects our emotions, our capacities to respond to things of value in the world 1 Wednesday, March 23, 2016 - The Law has punishments • It should be used sparingly because it fails to help people grow in virtue • The more laws you need, the more your society is falling apart • Caveat: The people must have their basic needs met, if they are expected to be virtuous - What is required to be a good ruler? • Must be virtuous, but that isn't all • practical skills of government (e.g. public works) • These should be connected • - Art, Literature - Political Theory • Ultimately, the realm will be led by a supreme political figure, the emperor • That person will stand in relation to the population as a father to son - “If you govern the people by laws, and keep them in order by penalties, they will avoid the penalties, yet lose their sense of shame” - “If you govern them by your moral excellence, and keep them in order by your dutiful conduct, they will retain their sense of shame, and also live up to this standard” Illegal Many cases of Both Immoral speeding Murder Adultery parking violations Rape Lying jaywalking Star wars episode 1 Stealing 2 The Faramir Incident Wednesday, March 23, 2016 - Moral Psychology • A mixture of ethics and psychology - ethics: The study of right and wrong, what should be done (or not done)- Normative Concepts - Psychology: The study of our actual behavior- Descriptive Concepts - “Are people innately benevolent?” Are people naturally good?” • must understand the concept of benevolence first - benevolence/Goodness are ethical concepts - Mencius • There are four core values - benevolence (ren) - righteousness (yi) - wisdom - propriety (ii) - “The feeling of compassion is benevolence. The feeling of disdain is righteousness.The feeling of respect is propriety. The feeling of approval and disapproval is wisdom.” - Virtues are portrayed as dispositions to actions that are rooted in feelings/emotional states. - The virtues are innate (Innate: naturally a part of you, know it from birth, don’t have to be taught) • Does not mean that people are born virtuous. What it means is that we have deep disposition to become virtuous. - A claim in the world of developmental psychology / linguistings: Humans have language innately - Doesn’t mean that they are born knowing how to speak 3 Wednesday, March 23, 2016 - Very strong dispositions t develop or create language that need not depend on external teaching - Mecius’ Example: A child falling into a well • everyone will act benevolently • Even people who aren’t particularly good • Even if there is no promise of reward - Benevolence: Wanting what is good for another person (attitude) plus wisdom about what is actually good for another person (skill) • Example: King spares an ox • something else must be killed • king treats his people pretty poorly - Homeless people asking for money • people usually unwilling to give money - Tom’s shoes • for every pair of shoes bought, Tom’s will donate a pair of shoes to a child in Africa in need. Problem with this is that it puts local shoemakers out of business - Why are so few people benevolent? • benevolence is only one aspect of our nature • selfishness, greed, lust, etc Environment that we are raised in • • thoughtlessness - Fulfillment • Your entire being will be in harmony: mind, body functioning properly • mind • body • Qi/Chi: reward for a life of virtue leads toe entire body becoming harmonious - 4 Wednesday, March 23, 2016 - Daoism (Taoism) - Develops in China - Alongside (and in competition with) Confucianism - Lao Tzu • Contemporary of Confucius • Questionably real: maybe not historical Name translates as “old man” or “old teacher” • • Traditionally, he met and conversed with Confucius • More controversially, he trained (or even was) the Buddha - Daodejing • Series of poems • no clear structure, chapters are largely independent (and not about cheese) • Dao/Tao: They Way, path, road, “The Way of all things,” a bit like laws of nature, the way the world flows - The One: Undifferentiated cosmic energy - The Two: Yin and Yang • Yin:dark, coldness, cloudiness, rain, femaleness, that which is inside • Yang: light, sunshine, heat, spring and summer, maleness • neither one is good or bad, or even better than the other. both are important, and they cycle between each other in many different spheres of life - “when the beautiful strive to be beautiful, it is repulsive” - Wuwui: Nonaction (not inaction), “going with the flow”, responding to world rather than trying to shape it to your will, atonement • fit into the way the world works rather than trying to change the way the world works - examples: phones/technology acting as artificial sun —> this is bad because we are trying to change world so we can get more out of the day 5


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