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Chapter 42 Notes

by: Anne Notetaker

Chapter 42 Notes Biol 112

Anne Notetaker
C of C

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Animal Form and Function
General Biology: Evolution, Form, and Function
Dr. Senn
Class Notes
biology 112
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anne Notetaker on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 112 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Senn in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see General Biology: Evolution, Form, and Function in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Chapter 42 Notes Animal Form & Function  Animals are generally studied through anatomy and physiology -anatomy is the study of an organism’s physical structure -physiology is the study of how the physical structures in an organism function Form, Function, and Adaptation  Biologists who study animal anatomy and physiology are studying adaptations -heritable traits allow individuals to survive and reproduce in a certain environment better than individuals that lack those traits  Adaptation results from evolution by natural selection Anatomical adaptations physiological changes  increased fitness Adaptation & Acclimatization Acclimatization is a phenotypic change that occurs in an individual in response to a short term change in environmental conditions Structure and Function at Cellular and Molecular Levels  Correlations between form and function begin at the molecular level -for example, protein shape correlates with their role as enzymes, structural components of the cell, or transporters  Similar at the cellular level: -cells that discrete digestive enzymes contain a lot of rough ER and Golgi  A tissue is a group of similar cells that function as a unit  4 adult tissue types: 1. connective- cells loosely arranged in a matrix loose: cappilaries supporting: bones and cartilage dense: tendons liquid: blood 2. nervous- neurons transport electrical signals 3. muscle skeletal: long, striped cells, voluntary movement cardiac: branched cells, involuntary movement smooth muscle: tapered cells, involuntary movement 4. epithelial- cover the outside of the body, lines the surface of organs, and form glands -provide protection and transport of water and nutrients -cells have apical (outside) and basolateral (inside) parts Organs & Organ Systems  cells with similar functions are organized into tissues  tissues are organized into specialized structures called organs  organs are part of larger units called organ systems which consist of groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform multiple functions Surface Area/Volumes  cell surface area: determines the rate at which gases and nutrients diffuse across a membrane  cell volume: determines the rate of diffusion  as the mass increases, the basal metabolic rate per gram of animal decreases  ways of increasing surface area: flattening, folding, or branching  Homeostasis can be achieved by: 1. Conformation: conforming to the external environment 2. Regulation: physiological mechanism adjusts inner state  Set point: target value of body temperature  Homeostatic system based on 3 general components: 1. Sensor- senses change in environment, records a parameter 2. Integrator- the brain compares sensor input with set point, then instructs effectors. (hypothalamus is in charge of this) 3. Effector- internal response changes to keep set point  All animals exchange heat with their environment in 4 ways: 1. conduction 2. convection-wind 3. radiation 4. evaporation- sun  homeotherms: keep their body temperature constant  heterotherms: tolerate changes in body temperature  thermoregulation- process by which animals control their body temperature -endotherm: produces adequate heat to warm its own tissue -ectotherm: relies on heat gained from the environment  to tolerate body temperatures, animals use: 1. torpor- temporary drop in temperature 2. hibernation- long term drop in temperature


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