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Greek and Roman Mythology Chapters 19, 20, 21, 22

by: Megan Standiford

Greek and Roman Mythology Chapters 19, 20, 21, 22 CLA 2444

Marketplace > Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University > CLA 2444 > Greek and Roman Mythology Chapters 19 20 21 22
Megan Standiford
Virginia Tech
GPA 2.7

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Greek and Roman Mythology
Christine Steer
Class Notes
Greek and Roman Mythology
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Standiford on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLA 2444 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Christine Steer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Chapters 19, 20, 21, 22 Chapter 19  Leda o Was the wife of Tyndareus, King of Sparta o Zeus fell in love with her and came to her in the form of a swan; she then laid two eggs o From each egg, two children were born  Polydeuces and Helen born from one  Castor and Clymenestra born from the other o Polydeuces was immortal and Castor was mortal  Together they are called the Dioscuri  Eventually the brothers shared immortality  Famous in their own right, but do not feature largely in the Trojan War o Clymenestra became the wife of Agamemnon; Helen became the wife of Menelaus  Menelaus and Agamemnon were the sons of Atreus  Clymenestra became the queen of Mycenae  Helen became queen of Sparta  Thetis o Sea goddess whose son would be greater than his father o She married Peleus o All gods expect Eris came to the wedding; Eris got jealous and threw a golden apple into the wedding party o On the apple were the words "to the fairest" o The apple was fought over by Hera, Athena and Aphrodite o They asked Zeus to choose which one of them was the fairest but he refused o Paris, son of King Priam of Troy was asked to decide o At the time, Paris was not living in Troy but was a shepherd in the mountains o His parents received a prophesy at his birth saying that he would cause the downfall of Troy, so they had left him on Mount Ida as a baby to die o When the goddesses came to Paris, they offered him bribes o Hermes conducted the goddesses to Paris o Hera offered royal power if Paris chose her o Athena offered victory in war if Paris chose her o Aphrodite offered to Paris the love of the most beautiful woman in the world o Paris chose Aphrodite  And her reward, the most beautiful woman, Helen daughter of Leda and Zeus, wife of Menelaus, sister of Clymenestra, and sister-in-law of Agamemnon  Helen o Most beautiful of Greek women o Even as a child her beauty was widely acknowledged o Theseus had abducted her when she was young because of her great loveliness o Because she was so beautiful, all the Greek kings agreed that she was to choose her own husband, and they would all defend the marriage she chose  Dardanus was the son of Electra and Zeus o He went to a place called Troad where Teucer was king o Dardanus married the daughter of Teucer and built a city which became Troy o Thus the Trojans are called Dardani, by homer  Laomedon was the great grandson of Dardanus o He made a deal with Apollo and Posiedon who built the walls of Troy, but then he cheated them of their pay; Not smart o So Apollo sent a plague and Poseidon sent a monster to ravage Troy o Heracles came to the city and killed the monster and appeased the gods but also was cheated of his pay by Laomedon, so he killed him but spared his son Podaces who changed his name to Priam and became king of Troy  Priam o King of Troy during the Trojan War o 50 sons and 50daughters o Among his sons were Paris and Hector o Among his daughters were Cassandra and Polyxena o Hecuba was his wife, and the mother of a number of his children  Paris was one of her sons  It was foretold at his birth that he would cause the fall of Troy  He was then sent away from the palace but later was recognized by Priam and welcomed back into the royal household  Paris later abducted Helen and he also shot the arrow which led to the death of Achilles  Hector o Hero of Troy o Son of Priam and Hecuba and the greatest warrior of the city of Troy o Married to Andromache and had a baby son, Astyanax o Always a model of virtue and goodness o Led the warriors to Troy but was also a faithful husband and father  Helenus, Deiphobus and Troilus o All sons of Priam who were all marginally important in the Trojan war o Helenus had the gift of prophesy  He advised Aeneas in the Aeneid on his journey to Italy  He also ended up marrying Andromache, the widow of Hector, after she had endured many adventures o Deiphobus married Helen after the death of Paris  He was then killed in the sack of Troy o Troilus was the lover of Chrysade, and was the hero of many medieval romances  Daughter of Calchas who was originally a Trojan, but defected to the Greeks  Cassandra and Polyxena o Cassandra was given the gift of prophesy by Apollo, but was cursed that no one would believe her prophesies o She accuratley predicted the fall of Troy through the trick of the Trojan Horse but no one heeded her advice o Polyxena was sacrificed by the Greeks on the tomb of Achilles after the sack of Troy  Aeneas o Was a Trojan hero, but not a son of Priam o He was the son of Aphrodite and Anchises o Hero of the Aeneid of Vergil o Saved the survivors of Troy and eventually founded the Roman Race o His descendent, Romulus, founded the city of Rome  The Achaean Leaders o Agamemnon  "lord of men", King of Mycenae, leader of all the Greeks, husband of Clymenestra, father of Iphigenia, Electra and Orestes  Sacrificed his eldest daughter Iphigenia, to obtain favorable winds for the fleet when sailing to Troy o Menelaus  Brother of Agamemnon, king of Sparta, husband of Helen, son of Atreus  One of the war leaders in the Iliad, and respected as a great king, but like his brother, is often seen as rash, passionate and power-hungry o Diomedes  Son of Tydeus  He was a great warrior who wounded both Ares and Aphrodite during the Trojan War  He helped Odysseus steal the Paladium, and was with Odysseus in the night attack on the Trojan camp in which they killed Rhesus  Greatest Greek warrior in the Iliad after Achilles and Ajax, and is often depicted as more honorable than both o Nestor  King of Pylos, the oldest and wisest of the Greeks  Respected counselor and wise advisor of the Greeks o Ajax  There were two warriors named Ajax  The Greater was a great warrior, second only to Achilles  He is the opposite of Odysses as he uses brute force and is not eloquent  Ajax the Lesser was a notable warrior, but not as honored as the other o Odysseus  Perhaps the more perfect Greek hero  Unlike Achilles, he does not grow or change during his adventures, but embodies the ideals of Greek virtues; cleverness, resourcefulness, the ability to speak convincingly and is also a brave warrior  Trickiest of the Greeks  King of Ithaca  Did not want to go to war so he pretended to be mad  Eventually he relented, and gathered other warriors  He was crafty as well as a good warrior  He was one of the Greeks inside the Trojan Horse o Achilles  Son of Thetis, the greatest warrior, king of Aegina, prince of the Myrmidons, hid among the daughters of Lycomedes at Scyros to avoid the war  He sired a child, Neoptolemus with one of these princesses who later joined the Greeks at the end of the war  His best friend and possibly lover was Patroclus  Agamemnon said of him "Of all the warlords loved by the gods, I hate him the most" o However, after the Greeks gathered at Aulis to set off for Troy, the winds would not blow  This was not good  There was a thousand ships worth of men at the port of Aulis and they needed to be fed  They wanted to go to war, but there was no wind  For a long time  The wind would only change if Iphigenia was sacrificed  Agamemnon had offended the goddess Artemis, so she would not send the winds  She demanded this sacrifice  So Agamemnon sent for his daughter, saying that he was to be wed to Achilles  Iphigenia came with her mother, Clytemnestra  Then they realized she was to be sacrificed  Clytemnestra was furious, why was her daughter, not Helens daughter to be sacrificed?  She never forgave Agamemnon  Finally the winds came and amid many adventures, the fleet sailed to Troy  Protesilaus was the first of the Greeks to leap off of the boats and touch ground at Troy  He was killed by Prince Hector  After that, the first nine years of the war went by  Homer begins the Iliad in the last year of the war, with the anger of Achilles  Achilles was angry because Agamemnon insisted that he give up Briseis to him  So achilles refused to fight and sat on the beach  Then the Trojans got the advantage  Agamemnon, king of the Greeks, began to regret his decision and sent an envoy to ask Achilles to return to the fight  Odysseus, Ajax, and Phoenix were in this envoy  Phoenix, the tutor and companion of Achilles told the story of Meleager and the Caledonian Boar Hunt to try to convince Achilles to let go of his pride and fight with honor o Story of Meleagers  Mother was told that her son would live as long as a certain log was not burned  She kept the log safe until Meleager, in anger over the slight to Atalanta, killed his uncles  In her anger, the mother threw the log on the fire and Meleager died  The woman who mourned for him however, the meleagrides, became guinea fowl  This story shows the rashness and senselessness of prideful anger o Achilles changes his mind  The embassy to Achilles did not convince him to return to battle  Finally Patroclus, friend of Achilles, took the armor of Achilles and led the Greeks into battle  Hector of Troy killed Patroclus and took his armor  The death of Patroclus was the event which convinced Achilles to change his mind and decide to return to battle  Thetis begged Hephaestus for new armor for Achilles  Hephaestus made fantastic, godly armor for Achilles  The shield alone was amazing  In this new armor, Achilles sought out Hector, the killer of Patroclus o The death of Patroclus was the turning point of the epic  Achilles, filled with rage, sought out Hector and challanged him  After a terrible fight, Hector fell  After the fight, Achilles took the body of Hector and tied it to his chariot  He drove his chariot around the walls of Troy so that the Trojans could see the body of their fallen prince  He then returned to the encampment of the Greeks and refused to bury the body of Hector  Priam begged for the body of his son  After many days, Priam went secretly to the tent of Achilles to beg for the body of his son, Hector  Achilles, finally moved by the appeals of the old king, gave him the body of Hector  The Iliad ends with the funeral of Hector o But the war went on  After the funeral of Hector, Paris show Achilles in the heel with an arrow, and he fell  Then the armor of Achilles was claimed by Odysseus  Finally the wooden horse was built  The horse was left on the shore with the tricky Greek, Sinon  Sinon said that it would be terrible for the Greeks if the Trojans brought the horse into the city  He begged the Trojans to kill him, for he claimed that he wsa hated by Odysseus  Laocoon said, "I don’t trust the Greeks even bearing gifts"  He struck the horse with his spear and immediately he and his sons were devoured by two sea serpents from Tenedos  The horse was taken into the city  And the Greeks came back and sacked the city  They burned and utterly destroyed Troy  But Aenas and a handful of Trojans escaped  And after many adventured settled in Italy  These Trojans, together with the native people they found in Italy, became the ancestors of the Romans Chapter 20 After the Trojan war the Greeks sailed home  o Some made it home right away, and some did not o Ajax-the-lesser for example was caught in a storm. He clung to a rock claiming no god could keep him from escaping death at sea, but Poseidon struck him with his trident and he was killed o Ajax-the-greater had already committed suicide  Menelaus o Was determined to kill Helen but when he saw her again, his heart softened and he took her back o He then lost all but 5 ships on his return to Greece, and was sent off to Egypt o There he forced Proteus to tell him how to appease the gods and get home o After seven years, he and Helen make it back to Sparta and continued their reign  Diomedes o Returned home quickly to Argos but found that his wife has been unfaithful o This was the work of Aphrodite, whom he had injured in the war o He then left Greece and founded several cities in Italy  Idomeneus o Returned home to Crete to find that his wife, Meda, had committed adultery and had married Leucus who had then murdered her and her children and made himself king o He then established a new kingdom in Italy  Neoptolemus o Son of Achilles, warned by Thetis not to go home by sea, took the land-way home o He and his wife, Hermonie (daughter of Helen), accompanied by Helenus and Andromache finally came to Epirus o Andromache and Hermonie had a falling out, and eventually Neoptolemus left Andreomache with Helenus, one of the surviing sons of Priam, who then settled with Andromache in Buthrotum o Neoptolemus was killed by Orestes over Hermione  Agamemnon o Finally made it home only to be murdered in the bath by Clytemnestra and Aegisthus o Then Orestes and Electra murdered their mother, Clytemnestra to avenge Agamemnon, their father  Odysseus o Took him 10 years and many adventures to get home o After he left Troy he came to the city of Ismarus o Next they came to the land of the Lotus Eaters  When the men of Odysseus ate the Lotus, they forgot about returning home  However, Odysseus managed to get away from this land with all of his men o Then they came to the land of the Cyclopes  Polyphemus, the Cyclopes, captured Odysseus and his men and enclosed them in a cave with his sheep  They escaped by getting the monster drunk and blinding him, then sneaking out of his cave under the bellies of the sheep o Polyphemus was the son of Poseidon, and called out to his father for revenge  Originally Odysseus had o Then they came to the island of Aeolus, god of the winds  Aeolus gave Odysseus a bag of winds which would blow him home  Odysseus sailed without sleep, and finally managed to get within sight of Ithaca, his home  With Ithaca in sight, he finally slept  His men, overcome by curiosity, opened the bag and all the winds blew them away, back to the land of Aeolus  Aeolus refused to help a second time, so Odysseus left and nect visited the land of the Laestrygonians, who were cannibals and ate up several of his men o Then they came to Circe's Island  Circe turned some of the men into pigs.  Hermes, however, gave Odysseus a magic herb to counteract Circe's magic  All the men were returned to human form and they stayed with Circe for a year o Then Odysseus visited the land of the dead  The word "Nekuia" means the rite by which the shades of the dead were adressed  This entire book is often referred to as the "Book of the Dead" or the Nekuia o After that, he returned briefly to Circe, and then went to the land of the Sirens  These were creatures with lovely voices who lured men to their island where the ships would crash on the rocks  Odysseus tied himself to the mast, and stopped the ears of his men with wac, so only he heard the song  The song of the Sirens was not only beautiful, but full of secret wisdom which Odysseus coveted o Then they encountered the wandering rocks (plactae) and Scylla and Charybdis  Odysseud avoided the wandering rocks and evaded the whirlpool of Charybdis by sailing close to Scylla o Then they came to the land where the cattle of the sun were pastured  Odysseus warned his men not to eat the meat of the cattle, but they disobeyed him, again, while he slept  Therefore, all who are the cattle were doomed to not reach their homes o All the men of Odysseus died in a storm. He made it to the home of Calypso  He lived with her for seven years  She loved him and offered to make him immortal, but he chose mortality  Eventually she let him to when the god Hermes directed her to do so  Athena had asked Zeus to command the release of Odysseus, so Zeus sent Hermes to deliver the message to Calypso  Calypso relented, and Odysseus finally left o He then went to the land of the Phaeacians  The princess Nausicaa rescued him and brought him to the palace of her father, the king  They gave him gifts and set him on his was to Ithaca o But he still had troubles  When he got to Ithaca, his wife, Penelope, was beset by suitors  Odysseus entered his own land in disguise and scouted out the situation  He was recognized by his old nurse, Euryclea, by a scar on his leg, but he ordered her to remain silent about his identity o Penelope had been putting off choosing a new husband  Many suitors were demanding that she choose a new husband from among them  She said that when she had finished the cloak she was weaving she would choose her new husband Yet she wove in the day and unraveled her weaving at night   Finally the suitors forced her to make a decision  She said she would marry the one who could string and shoot the bow of Odysseus o None of the suitors could string the bow  Then Odysseus tried the challenge  He strung the bow, shot it, and then he and his son, Telemachus killed all the suitors o Odysseus made his way home because he was clever  His wife, Penelope, was also clever  Most of all, however, she was faithful  She devised several strategies to keep the suitors at bay, and even when Odysseus returned, she tested him before accepting him as her huband  She forced him to describe her bedroom, which only he had ever seen  He had built it around a live tree  When he was able to describe her bedroom, she realized that he was, indeed her husband o Athena was the special guardian of Odysseus  His cleverness and slyness appealed to her  Even when she appeared to him, as she did from time to time in his adventures, he did not tell her his real name Chapter 21  Argos was the most important city stat for the worship of Hera o The Heraeum (the hill where Hera's sanctuary school) was the religious center of the entire area  The most famous hero of Argos was Perseus o Danae was his mother  She was the daughter of King Acrisus of Argos  The king wanted a son so he consulted the oracle  The oracle said that Danae would have a son but he would not  It also fortold that the son of Danae would kill Acrisius  So the king locked Danae away in a tower  But Zeus saw Danae in the tower and impregnated her in the form of a shower of gold  She became pregnant and bore a son, Perseus  Acrisius found our about baby Perseus  He did not want to be responsible for killing his daughter outright, so he threw her and her son into a box and threw the box into the sea  The box did not sink but it carried the mother and child to Seriphos, where they were found by Dictys  However, the king of Seriphos, Polydectes, fell in love with Danae as Perseus grew up  Polydectes threw a feast and each man was to bring a gift of a horse  Perseus said that he could easily being the head of the Gorgon  So Polydectes ordered Peresus to complete that task, and bring him the Gorgons head  So Perseus set off, first to the Graeae  These were the sisters of the Gorgons  Hey were old women from birth and they told him the way to the nymphs who would give him aid Then to the nymphs   Who gave him a cap of invisibility, winged sandals and a sack  From Hermes he received a scimitar  Then Perseus flew to the home of the Gorgons  Medusa was the only mortal one of the Gorgons  Her eyes turned people to stone  Perseus beheaded her by looking at her reflection in his shield  From her blood sprang Chrysaor and Pegasis  Perseus flew away unarmed, since he was wearing the cap of invisibility  But his bringing the head to Polydectes was not his only goal  The beautiful princess Andromeda was about to be sacrificed to a sea monster  She was to be sacrificed because her mother foolishly claimed that Andromeda was more beautiful than the Nereids  If Andromeda not sacrificed, the entire city would be destroyed  Perseus killed the monster with the scimitar of Hermes  Then married Andromeda and used the Gorgons head to turn Phineus, her previous fiancé, to stone  Perseus used the head of Medusa for a number of other tasks, such as turning the giant, Atlas, to stone  Perseus returned to Seriphos and showed the head to Polydectes  Thus turning Polydectes an his followers to stone  Then the magic items were returned to the gods  The had of Medusa was given to Athena who put it in the middle of her shield  And Perseus did end up killing Acrisus  Perseus threw a discus which accidentally hit his grandfather, Acrisius, causing his death  Other legends of Argos o Io, the beautiful maiden who was turned into a cow, was also from Argos o She was turned into a cow because Hera was jealous of her o Hera had Argus of the 100 eyes guard her o Hermes slew Argus and freed Io o Hera put the 100 eyes of Argus on the peacock o Io at last came to Egypt where Zeus restored her to human form o There she gave birth to Epaphus, the ancestor of Heracles o The Egyptians may have identified Epaphus with Apis, the sacred bull o Io is sometimes identified with Isis o This tale is very confused, not least because of the merging of Greek and Egyptian elements, and the sources for this story contradict one another  But what happened to Pegasus? o The winged horse Pegasus sprung from the blood of Medusa o The corinthian hero, Bellerophon, was the rider of Pegasus o His story begins with his travels to the court of Proteusm king of Tiryns o He went there to be cleansed of the blood-guilt for accidentally killing his own brother o But the wife of Proteus, Stheneboea, fell in love with him o However, Bellerophon rejected Stheneboea o So she accused hum of trying to seduce her o So Proteus sent Bellerophon away to Iobates, with a note asking Iobates to kill Bellerophon o Iobates was hesitant to kill a guestm so he asked Bellerophon to kill the Chimera o Bellerophon succeeded o So then he was challenged to fight the Solymi, and then the Amazons o He won all of these challenges o Finally the most valiant men in all Lycia waited in ambush for him, but Bellerophon defeated them all o So the king realized that Bellerophon had divine protection o He gave Bellerophon one of his other daughters to marry and half of the kingdom o Poseidon gave Pegasus to Bellerophon, and Athena enabled him to tame Pegasus o But he became to proud o Bellerophon decided to ride Pegasus all the way to Mount Olympus o Before he could reach Olympus, Pegasus threw him down o He lived the rest of his life crippled and disgraced Chapter 22  Heracles o The earthly parents of Heracles were Amphitryon and Alcmena o But Zeus, disguised as Amphitryon, had already visited Alcmena, and he impregnated her o She bore twins: Heracles and Iphicles to Amphitryon o When Heracles was a baby, Hera sent two serpents to kill him o Baby heracles strangled both o Just as this happened… Zeus appeared to Amphitryon and revealed the teuth about the twin boys o Hera was the enemy of Heracles, so later in his life he learned that he must respect and honor her and try to gain her favor o Hera was angry about Heracles o There was a prophecy given by Zeus "Today Eileithyia helper in childbirth, will bring to light a man who shall rule over all that dwell around him: he shall be of the race that is of my blood" o Hera arranged that this child was Eurystheus instead of Heracles o Later in his life, Heracles would perform his labors for Eurytheus o Heracles had many tutors as a child o Amphitryon taught him chariot driving, Autolycus- wrestling, Eurytus- archery and Linus, son of Apollo- music o Heracles killed his music teacher by hitting him with his lyre o After performing some impressive tasks, Heracles was given Megara to be his wife o He had killed a great lion which had been preying on the cattle of the king of Thespiae o He also freed the Thebans from paying tribute to the Minyans o He and Megara, daughter of king Creon, niece of Jocasta, had three children o Hera was still angry with Heracles o She caused him to go mad and kill Megara and the three children o After he came to his senses, Heracles did a number of labors to atone for this terrible crime o First he left Thebes, where he had been living, and went to Thespiae, where Thespius purified him o Then he sought advice from the oracle at Delphi o This is where he got the name Heracles o The oracle told him to go to Tiryns where he would do 12 labors for Eurystheus o If he did this he would become immortal 1. The Nemean Lion  Required to bring the skin of the Nemean Lion to Eurystheus  He killed it with his club  Ever after, the lion-skin and club are his symbols 2. The Lernaean Hydra  9 headed serpent that lived in the swamps near Argos  Labor was made harder by a huge crab which Hera sent  First Heracles killed the crab, then the Hydra- each time he cut off a head, his nephew, Iolaus, cauterized the wound so two new heads would not grow back  The last, immortal head he buried under a huge rock 3. The Cerynean Hind  This hind, had golden antlers and was sacred to Artemis  Heracles pursued it for a year, then finally caught it and brought it unharmed to Eurystheus  This was a difficult challenge because if Heracles harmed the Hind, he would incur the wrath of Artemis 4. The Erymanthian Boar  Also had to be captured alive  Chased the boar into the deep… snow and captured it with nets  When he brought it back, Erystheus was so scared that he hid in a jar  On his way to do this labor, Heracles got mixed up in a great fight with the centaurs 5. The Augean Stables  King Augeas had a vast herd of cattle whose stable had never been cleaned out  Heracles was to clean the stables in one day  He did this by diverting the rivers Alpheus and Peneus  It was after this labor that Heracles is said to have instituted the Olympic games in honor of Zeus 6. The Stymphalian Birds  Heracles was suppose to kill these man-eating birds which had beaks of bronze  He did this by flushing them out of the trees using brazen castanets given to him by Athena, then shooting them with his bow 7. The Cretan Bull  Same bull that king Minos refused to sacrifice to Poseidon  Heracles beought it back alive to Eurystheus  Turned loose eventually and sacrificed by Theseus 8. The Mare of Diomedes  These were man-eating horses owned by Diomedes  Heracles fed Diomedes to them, and tamed them, then took them to Eurystheus who set them free and dedicated them to Hera  On the way to this labor, Heracles wrestled with death to get Alcestis back to her husband, Admetus 9. The Girdle of Hippolyta  Hippolyta was queen of the Amazons  Her girdle had magic powers  Heracles killed her in battle and took the girdle  It was after this labor, on his return, that he rescued Hesione from the sea- monster and saved troy 10. The Cattle of Geryon  Geryon was a three-bodied monster who tended a herd of cattle, assisted by a two-headed dog, Orthus and a herdsman, Eurytion  Heracles killed Geryon, Orthus and Eurytion and beought the cattle back to Eurystheus o Diversion  The cattle of Geryon were well to the west of the Mediterranean Sea  Heracles needed special help to reach them and return  On his way back, he set up the Pillars of Heracles at Gibraltar, among having other adventures 11. The apples of the Hesperides  The Hesperides were the three daughters of Night who lived far away to the west  They guarded an apple tree, aided by the serpent Ladon  Heracles asked for the help of Atlas for this task  Heracles held up the heavens while Atlas got the apples  It is during this labor that Heracles freed Prometheus 12. Cerberus  The final labor was to kidnap Carberus, the three-headed guard dog of Hades, and to bring him to Eurystheus  He did this with the help of Hermes and Athena  While in hades, Heracles freed Theseus o Was one of the members of the Argo's crew  He went with Jason to search for the golden fleece, but did not complete the journey  He loved a youth, Hylas, who was another of the Argonauts  When Hylas was lost, Heracles spent so much time looking for him that the rest of the Argonauts sailed off without him o Marriage to Deianira  Married Deianira  But after a while he fell in love with Iole, daughter of the king of Oechalia and he also spent a year serving Queen Ompphale  Deianira became jealous of these other women and dipped a robe in the magical blood of Nessus the centaur, and sent the robe to Heracles  Before his death, Nessus had said to Deianira that his blood could be used as a potion to return the love of Heracles to her if he should ever be unfaithful  The robe burned the flesh of Heracles  Thus his mortal parts were burned away and he became immortal, and joined the gods o Not the ideal warrior like Achilles  Seldom fight other warriors, he most often overcomes beasts and monsters  He certainly is not crafty like Odysseus  He fights with a club now with warrior weapons: spears and swords  Thus, he is a more primitive type of hero o The Greek hero, son of Zeus, exemplar of strength  Is also the man wielding the primitive weapon and wearing a lion skin  It is likely that his origins are far from Greece, and it is quite likely that he came from a time before even the Mycenaean culture o Champion of Virtue  There is a legend that Heracles was offered a choice as a young man to choose pleasure or virtue, and he chose virtue  The virtuous life would be harder, but would result in eternal glory, where as the pleasurable life would be easy, but earn him no fame o Many stories of Heracles and his family  Descendants of Heracles are called the Heraclidae  The two royal houses of Sparta were supposedly founded by two descendants of Heracles, Procles and Eurysthenes o Modern Heracles  Heracles has been made over and over again in modern movies  The Disney Heracles came out in 1997, and the Kevin Sorbo Heracles series ran from 1995-1999  In 2014, Dwayne Johnson starred as Heracles in a new movie  Also the Kellan Lutz version has recently been released


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