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Interspecific Competition

by: Jesse McDonald

Interspecific Competition Biology 286

Marketplace > Purdue University > Biology > Biology 286 > Interspecific Competition
Jesse McDonald

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About this Document

Covers lecture 20
Introduction to Ecology and Evolution
Dr. Josh Springer
Class Notes
Ecology, Biology, competition, interspecific competition
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jesse McDonald on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 286 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Josh Springer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Evolution in Biology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Interspecific Competitions and Tritrophic Interactions     Competition ­ use or defense of a resource by one individual that reduces the availability of the  resource to other individuals.  ● Resource limitation results in competition:  ○ Food, water, nutrients  ○ Space  ○ Mates   ● Mode of competition:  ○ Intraspecific​­ competition between individuals of the same species  ○ Interspecific ​ competition between individuals from different species both  fighting for the same resource in the ecosystem.   ■ Consumption of a shared resource   ■ Preemption: first come, first serve  ■ Overgrowth: one species grows over another, access to resources are  blocked. (Ex. strangler figs)  ■ Chemical interaction: species produce growth inhibitors or toxins  ■ Territorial: competing for space use  ■ Encounter: non­territorial overlapping resource use    Interspecific Competition:  ● A negative­negative interaction: both species’ fitness is reduced  ● Intensity of competition depends on overlap of niche  ● Outcome depends on how efficiently individuals of each species exploit shared  resources    Quantifying Interspecific Competition:    N = starting population at ti​  t r = intrinsic growth rate   K = carrying capacity   ᵬ = per capita effect of species 2 on species 1  ᵭ = per capita effect of species 1 on species 2         Model Predictions: possible outcomes  1. Species 1 inhibits growth of species 2 and the  latter goes extinct.             Model Predictions: possible outcomes  2. Species 2 inhibits growth of species 1 and the  latter goes extinct.                     Competitive exclusion principle:  ● Complete competitors cannot coexist. One species will go extinct.   ○ There is plenty of experimental data explaining this.     Model Predictions: possible outcome  3. Unstable situation; both inhibit each other in a  density dependent manner.                      Model Prediction: possible outcome  4. Intraspecific competition more the interspecific.  Neither can eliminate the competitor.                       Tritrophic Interaction:  ● Predators can mediate the competition of prey species.  ● We use this constantly ­ controlling agricultural pests using predators  ● Non­resources can mediate competition  ● Other species can also mediate competition  


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