Lecture 18 - Prejudice & Stereptypes
Lecture 18 - Prejudice & Stereptypes PSYC 2012
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
Reviews for Lecture 18 - Prejudice & Stereptypes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/04/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 04/04/2016 Prejudice / Stereotypes Variety of Prejudice ➢ Race, Gender, Religion, Ethnicity, Age these are all common topics of study for prejudice ➢ BUT any group can be a target ** ○ Political groups, colleges, fraternities, trekkies (fans of Star Wars), freshman, etc ABC’s ➢ Prejudice = Affect, Attributes ➢ Discrimination = Behavior ➢ Stereotypes = Cognition, Beliefs ➢ Often cooccur but not always ** What is Prejudice? ➢ Def: A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguished group of people based solely on their membership in that group ○ Based on generalizations ○ Often faulty or incomplete information ➢ Felt or expressed ○ Selfmonitoring ○ Microaggressions ➢ Direct or subtle ○ Hate crimes v. Preferences ➢ Can result in feelings of helplessness, powerlessness, and anger ➢ Consequences ○ Damages selfesteem ■ Clark and Clark Doll Study (1947) ● AfricanAmerican children (young as 3) given option of playing with a black or white doll ○ Rejected the black doll ○ White doll was perceived to be prettier and generally superior ● Lesson: It wasn’t desirable to be black ■ Brown v. Board of Education (1954) ● Desegregation of schools Stereotypes ➢ Def: a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned to virtually all members of a group (regardless of actual variation among the members) ○ Cognitive component ** ○ Ex(s): New Yorkers, farmers, dumb blondes, jocks, librarians ➢ How are stereotypes learned? ○ Social Learning Family, friends, media ○ Prejudice also can be automatically activated may influence behavior ➢ Can be positive or negative ○ Ex: “African Americans are good at sports” or “African Americans are better dancers” ○ Ex: “Asian Americans are good at math” ➢ Can be inaccurate, accurate, or partially accurate ➢ Consequences of overgeneralization ○ Denies people of their individuality ○ Creates standards not every member of the group meets ○ When negative, results in overall poor impression of the group and has consequences for the individual ■ Ex: “African Americans are criminals” ■ Ex: “Asian Americans are bad drivers” ➢ Automatic Processing ➢ Evolution ○ Need to quickly detect threats ⇒unconscious, immediate categorization along dimensions such as age, race, and sex ○ Wired to think stereotypically ➢ People can describe stereotypes whether they believe them or not ** ➢ People’s behaviors can be influenced by stereotypes whether they believe them or not ** ➢ Distort Perception ➢ Ignore or give insufficient weight to info that doesn’t fit ➢ 2Step Processing 1. Stereotypes automatically activated by perception of a member of a group 2. Deliberately taking time to think about stereotype and our actions (disregard, ignore, etc) ➢ Not deeply prejudiced ⇒possible to suppress, override, or change stereotypes ➢ Conscious and effortful process ➢ How do stereotypes form? ○ Social categorization: tendency to mentally sort things / people into groups ■ Makes the world easier to think about (cognitive misers) ■ Automatic ○ Leads to OutGroup Homogeneity: perception that outgroup members are more similar to each other than are ingroup members ○ We have more contact with our ingroups across different situations and contexts ○ Individuals enhance their selfesteem by identifying with specific special groups ■ Selfesteem is enhanced if the individual sees their group as superior to other groups The Activation of Prejudice ➢ Behave more aggressively toward stereotyped target when: ○ Stressed ○ Angry ○ Suffered blow to selfesteem ○ Not in control of conscious intentions ➢ What contributes to prejudice? ○ Learning / Socialization ■ Evolutionary Psychology: prejudice may be the result of a tendency to favor genetically similar individuals (survival mechanism) ■ Most social psychologists: Prejudice is learne ** ● Children pick up on their parents’ attitudes ● Media messages ● Do these attributes persist into adulthood? ○ Competition ○ Realistic Conflict Theory: limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in prejudice / discrimination ○ Relative Deprivation: feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared to others ■ Ex: Mexican American migrant workers and Caucasians (jobs) Immigration debates ■ Arabs and Israelis (territory disputes) ○ Stereotypes of Chinese Americans ** ■ Gold Rush Depraved, vicious, inhuman ■ Transcontinental Railroad Industrious, lawabiding, trustworthy ■ End of Civil War Conniving, crafty, criminal ○ Scapegoating: tendency for people (when frustrated or unhappy) to displace aggression onto disliked, visible, and relatively powerless groups ■ No logical competitor exists ■ Blame falls on a less powerful outgroup ■ Ex: Nazis treatment of Jews ○ Institutionalized People: prejudicial attitudes are held by the majority of people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the norm ■ Can be blatant (e.g., racial segregation) or more subtle (e.g., “flesh” colored crayon) ○ Normative Conformity: people adopt prejudicial attributes and discriminatory behavior to go along with the group and gain acceptance ■ Illustrated by changing social norms ○ Motivational Needs ■ Need for Control ● JustWorld Theory / Blaming the Victim: slight tendency to believe that the world is just, so people get what they deserve and deserve what they get ● People don’t want to think that their fate is dependent on chance factors ● Thus, we sometimes blame the victim Social Identity and Activation Theories ➢ What stereotypes activate MAY depend on category chosen ➢ If person becomes member of ingroup, may change stereotypes Consequence of Social Categorization ➢ Social Identity Theory: we categorize ourselves and others into groups ○ We sort the world into groups that we belong to (ingroups) and groups that we do not belong to (outgroup) ■ Ex(s): country, religion, school, brown/blue, eyes video ■ Why? Selfesteem ■ Group SelfServing Bias InGroup Bias ➢ Def: positive feelings and special treatment for people we have defined as being part of our ingroup; negative feelings and unfair treatment for others simply because we have not defined them as being in the outgroup ○ Even when groups assigned randomly and we know it is random ○ Ex: Football victories “We won” InGroups v. OutGroups ➢ Robber’s Cave Study (Sherif, 1961) ○ 11 and 12 year old boys at camp divided into groups (Eagles and Rattlers) ○ Competed against each other for prizes in various activities; then were made to work together ■ Resulted in fierce and vicious hostility between groups ■ Displayed ingroup favoritism / cohesiveness
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'