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Lecture 18 - Prejudice & Stereptypes

by: Leslie Ogu

Lecture 18 - Prejudice & Stereptypes PSYC 2012

Marketplace > George Washington University > Psychlogy > PSYC 2012 > Lecture 18 Prejudice Stereptypes
Leslie Ogu
GPA 3.01

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In this class, we learned about the numerous origins of stereotypes and prejudice present in our minds and society today. We take a deeper look into their roots in our childhood, what influences ar...
Social Psychology
Stock, M
Class Notes
social psychology, Prejudice, Stereotypes, Black, white, Asian, american, African-American, Children, babies, kids, teenagers, college, Society, Influence, impact, ingrained, social learning theory, learning, race, age, Gender, ethnicity, Judge, discrimin
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/04/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012  04/04/2016 ­ ​Prejudice / Stereotypes    Variety of Prejudice  ➢ Race, Gender, Religion, Ethnicity, Age ­­ these are all common topics of study for  prejudice  ➢ BUT any group can be a target **  ○ Political groups, colleges, fraternities, trekkies (fans of Star Wars),  freshman, etc    ABC’s  ➢ Prejudice = Affect, Attributes  ➢ Discrimination = Behavior  ➢ Stereotypes = Cognition, Beliefs  ➢ Often co­occur but not always **    What is Prejudice?  ➢ Def:​  A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguished group of people based  solely on their membership in that group  ○ Based on generalizations  ○ Often faulty or incomplete information  ➢ Felt or expressed  ○ Self­monitoring  ○ Microaggressions  ➢ Direct or subtle  ○ Hate crimes v. Preferences  ➢ Can result in feelings of helplessness, powerlessness, and anger  ➢ Consequences  ○ Damages self­esteem  ■ Clark and Clark Doll Study (1947)  ● African­American children (young as 3) given option of  playing with a black or white doll  ○ Rejected the black doll  ○ White doll was perceived to be prettier and generally  superior  ● Lesson: It wasn’t desirable to be black  ■ Brown v. Board of Education (1954)  ● Desegregation of schools    Stereotypes  ➢ Def:​  a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics  are assigned to virtually all members of a group (regardless of actual variation  among the members)  ○ Cognitive​  component **  ○ Ex(s): New Yorkers, farmers, dumb blondes, jocks, librarians  ➢ How are stereotypes learned?  ○ Social Learning ­ Family, friends, media  ○ Prejudice also can be automatically activated ­ may influence behavior  ➢ Can be positive or negative  ○ Ex: “African Americans are good at sports” or “African Americans are  better dancers”  ○ Ex: “Asian Americans are good at math”  ➢ Can be inaccurate, accurate, or partially accurate  ➢ Consequences of overgeneralization  ○ Denies people of their individuality  ○ Creates standards not every member of the group meets  ○ When negative, results in overall poor impression of the group and has  consequences for the individual  ■ Ex: “African Americans are criminals”  ■ Ex: “Asian Americans are bad drivers”  ➢ Automatic Processing  ➢ Evolution  ○ Need to quickly detect threats ⇒unconscious, immediate  categorization along dimensions such as age, race, and sex  ○ Wired to think stereotypically  ➢ People can describe stereotypes whether they believe them or not **  ➢ People’s behaviors can be influenced by stereotypes whether they believe  them or not **  ➢ Distort Perception  ➢ Ignore or give insufficient weight to info that doesn’t fit  ➢ 2­Step Processing  1. Stereotypes ​automatically​ activated by perception of a member of  a group  2. Deliberately​ taking time to think about stereotype and our actions  (disregard, ignore, etc)  ➢ Not deeply prejudiced ⇒possible to suppress, override, or change  stereotypes  ➢ Conscious and effortful process  ➢ How do stereotypes form?  ○ Social categorization:​  tendency to mentally sort things / people into  groups  ■ Makes the world easier to think about (cognitive misers)  ■ Automatic  ○ Leads to ​ Out­Group Homogeneity:​  perception that out­group members  are more similar to each other than are in­group members  ○ We have more contact with our in­groups across different situations and  contexts  ○ Individuals enhance their self­esteem by identifying with specific special  groups  ■ Self­esteem is enhanced if the individual sees their group as  superior to other groups    The Activation of Prejudice  ➢ Behave more aggressively toward stereotyped target when:  ○ Stressed  ○ Angry  ○ Suffered blow to self­esteem  ○ Not in control of conscious intentions  ➢ What contributes to prejudice?  ○ Learning / Socialization  ■ Evolutionary Psychology:​  prejudice may be the result of a  tendency to favor genetically similar individuals (survival  mechanism)  ■ Most social psychologists: ​Prejudice is learne **  ● Children pick up on their parents’ attitudes  ● Media messages  ● Do these attributes persist into adulthood?  ○ Competition  ○ Realistic Conflict Theory:​  limited resources lead to conflict between  groups and result in prejudice / discrimination  ○ Relative Deprivation:​  feelings of discontent aroused by the belief that  one fares poorly compared to others  ■ Ex: Mexican American migrant workers and Caucasians (jobs) ­  Immigration debates  ■ Arabs and Israelis (territory disputes)  ○ Stereotypes of Chinese Americans **  ■ Gold Rush ­ Depraved, vicious, inhuman  ■ Transcontinental Railroad ­ Industrious, law­abiding, trustworthy  ■ End of Civil War ­ Conniving, crafty, criminal  ○ Scapegoating:​  tendency for people (when frustrated or unhappy) to  displace aggression onto disliked, visible, and relatively powerless groups  ■ No logical competitor exists  ■ Blame falls on a less powerful out­group  ■ Ex: Nazis treatment of Jews  ○ Institutionalized People:​  prejudicial attitudes are held by the majority of  people living in a society where stereotypes and discrimination are the  norm  ■ Can be blatant (e.g., racial segregation) or more subtle (e.g., “flesh”  colored crayon)  ○ Normative Conformity:​  people adopt prejudicial attributes and  discriminatory behavior to go along with the group and gain acceptance  ■ Illustrated by changing social norms  ○ Motivational Needs  ■ Need for Control  ● Just­World Theory / Blaming the Victim:​  slight tendency  to believe that the world is just, so people get what they  deserve and deserve what they get  ● People don’t want to think that their fate is dependent on  chance factors  ● Thus, we sometimes blame the victim    Social Identity and Activation Theories  ➢ What stereotypes activate MAY depend on category chosen  ➢ If person becomes member of in­group, may change stereotypes    Consequence of Social Categorization  ➢ Social Identity Theory:​  we categorize ourselves and others into groups  ○ We sort the world into groups that we belong to (in­groups) and groups  that we do not belong to (out­group)  ■ Ex(s): country, religion, school, brown/blue, eyes video  ■ Why? Self­esteem  ■ Group Self­Serving Bias    In­Group Bias  ➢ Def:​  positive feelings and special treatment for people we have defined as being  part of our in­group; negative feelings and unfair treatment for others simply  because we have not defined them as being in the out­group  ○ Even when groups assigned randomly and we know it is random  ○ Ex: Football victories ­ “We won”    In­Groups v. Out­Groups  ➢ Robber’s Cave Study (Sherif, 1961)  ○ 11 and 12 year old boys at camp divided into groups (Eagles and Rattlers)  ○ Competed against each other for prizes in various activities; then were  made to work together  ■ Resulted in fierce and vicious hostility between groups  ■ Displayed in­group favoritism / cohesiveness 


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