Reading: Hock 17 - Discovering Love
Reading: Hock 17 - Discovering Love APSY.UE.0002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Monday April 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 04/04/16
Reading: Hock 17 - Discovering Love Harlow discovered that love and aﬀection may be built-in basic needs that are just as strong or even stronger than those of hunger or thirst Past Idea: love was seen as developing from instinctive or survival needs Theoretical Propositions Harlow’s earlier studies: Infant monkeys were raised carefully by humans in the laboratory & separated from their monkey mothers Harlow noticed that these infant monkeys became very attached to their cloth pads (cotton diapers) that were used to cover the bottoms of their cages Agitated when pads were removed observed in baby monkeys as young as 1 day old and became stronger over time If the baby monkey was in a cage without this soft covering, it would thrive very poorly event though it received complete nutritional and medical care once the cloth was introduced, the infant would become healthier and seemingly content Harlow Theorized: infant monkeys must have some basic need for close contact with something soft and comforting in addition to primary biological needs such as hunger and thirst Method Harlow built diﬀerent kinds of experimental, surrogate monkey mothers Two types of surrogate mother 1. a smooth wooden body covered in sponge rubber and terrycloth Equipped with a breast like structure int eh chest area that delivered milk body contained a light bulb inside to give oﬀ warmth 2. less able to provide soft comfort wire mesh shaped about the same as the wooden frame working nursing great device provided warmth Both mothers were essentially the same except for the ability to oﬀer contact comfort manufactures mothers were placed in separate subicales attached to the infants monkey’s living cage 8 infant monkeys randomly assigned to 2 groups 1. the cloth mother was equipped with the feeder to provide milk 2. wire mother was equipped with the feeder Monkeys then placed in their cages and the amount of time they spent in direct contact with each mother was recorded for the ﬁrst 5 months of their lives Testing monkey’s response when placed in stressful situations placed in their cages objects that caused a fearful reaction reactions were observed and recorded carefully Open Field Test young monkeys placed in a small, unfamiliar room contains various objects such as wooden blocks, blankets, containers with lines, and a folded piece of paper Under normal circumstances: monkeys like to play with and manipulate objects Monkeys raised with both cloth & wire mothers were placed in the room with either the cloth mother present, no mother present, or the wire mother present examine the tendency of the young monkeys to adapt to and explore the strange situation with or without the presence of the mother Persistence of Attachment Monkeys reached 6 months of age and were on solid food diets separated for short periods from surrogate mother and then reunited int eh open-ﬁeld situation Results monkeys preferred the cloth mother Fundamental need for contact comfort was most signiﬁcant in producing an attachment between infant and its mother After ﬁrst few days of adjustment (regardless of which mother had milk) were spending nearly all their time each day on the cloth mother The two groups of monkeys that were raised with either a cloth or wire mother both groups ate the same amount and gained weight at the same rate Infants feeding from the wire mother did not digest the milk as well & experienced frequent bouts of diarrhea Lack of the soft mother was psychologically stressful to the infants Results of the frightening-object tests Monkeys would run to the cloth mother and cling for comfort and protection As their age increased, this response became even stronger Made no diﬀerence whether a monkey has received its milk from the wire or the cloth mother Results of strange-situation / open-ﬁeld tests Placed in the strange room: all monkeys immediately rushed to the cloth mother began to use the cloth mother as a base of operations Placed in same room w/out cloth mother: freeze with fear and engage in emotional behaviors (crying, crouching, thumb sucking) Placed in room w wire mother: reacted in same way as if no mother were preset true for all the monkeys, regardless of the nursing condition they had been raised Results of separation after longest separation (30 days0 when reunited with cloth mother inside strange situation rooms - monkeys rushed to mother & played with mother Did not leave the mother to explore and play with the objects in the room the need for contact comfort was greater than the natural tendency for exploration reunions were brief
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