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Chapter Two Textbook

by: Alisa Notetaker

Chapter Two Textbook PSY 1001

Marketplace > Temple University > Psychlogy > PSY 1001 > Chapter Two Textbook
Alisa Notetaker
GPA 3.55

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Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding (3rd Edition) Scott O. Lilienfeld, Steven J Lynn, Laura L. Namy, Nancy J. Woolf
Elementary Psychology
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
 Prefrontal lobotomy: surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal  lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus   Heuristic: Mental shortcut  or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking  and make sense of our world  Research Designs  Naturalistic observation: watching behavior in real­world settings without  trying to manipulate the situation o Advantage: high in external validity [ low in internal validity ]  o Disadvantage: doesn’t allow for us to infer causation  External validity: extent to which we can generalize findings to real­world  settings  Internal validity: extent to which we can draw cause­and­effect inferences  from a study  Case study: research design that examines one person or a small number of  people in depth, often over an extended time period o Advantage: can provide existence proofs o Advantage: Allows us to study rare or unusual phenomena o Disadvantage: doesn’t allow us to infer causation o Existence proof: demonstration that a given psychological  phenomenon can occur  Random Selection: Produce that ensures every person in a population has an equal  chance of being chosen to participate   What makes a study an experiment?  Random assignment of participants to conditions o Assigns control group + experimental group o Random assignment: randomly sorting participants into two groups o Control group: in an experiment the group of participants that don’t  receive the manipulation o Experimental group: in an experiment, the group of participants that  receive the manipulation   Manipulation of an independent variable o Independent variable: variable that an experimenter manipulates o Dependent variable: variable that an experimenter measures to see  whether the manipulation has an effect  o Operational definition: a working definition of what a researcher is  measuring   When the independent and dependent variables are defined  Placebo effect: improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement a. To avoid this the patient must remain blind o Blind: unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group  Nocebo effect: the “evil twin” of the placebo effect  Harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm  Rosenthal effect / Experimenter expectancy effect: phenomenon in which  researcher’ hypotheses leave them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study  Double­blind: when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the  experimental or control group   Demand characteristics: cues that participants pick up from a study that allows them to generate guesses regarding the researchers hypotheses   To combat this researchers sometimes conceal the nature of their study to  make sure that participants cannot alter their responses to something that you  may wish to hear  Institutional Review Board: reviews all research carefully with an eye toward  protecting participants against abuses   Informed consent: informing research participants of what is involved in a  study before asking them to participate 


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