Chapter Two Textbook
Chapter Two Textbook PSY 1001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Prefrontal lobotomy: surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus Heuristic: Mental shortcut or rule of thumb that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world Research Designs Naturalistic observation: watching behavior in realworld settings without trying to manipulate the situation o Advantage: high in external validity [ low in internal validity ] o Disadvantage: doesn’t allow for us to infer causation External validity: extent to which we can generalize findings to realworld settings Internal validity: extent to which we can draw causeandeffect inferences from a study Case study: research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period o Advantage: can provide existence proofs o Advantage: Allows us to study rare or unusual phenomena o Disadvantage: doesn’t allow us to infer causation o Existence proof: demonstration that a given psychological phenomenon can occur Random Selection: Produce that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate What makes a study an experiment? Random assignment of participants to conditions o Assigns control group + experimental group o Random assignment: randomly sorting participants into two groups o Control group: in an experiment the group of participants that don’t receive the manipulation o Experimental group: in an experiment, the group of participants that receive the manipulation Manipulation of an independent variable o Independent variable: variable that an experimenter manipulates o Dependent variable: variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect o Operational definition: a working definition of what a researcher is measuring When the independent and dependent variables are defined Placebo effect: improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement a. To avoid this the patient must remain blind o Blind: unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group Nocebo effect: the “evil twin” of the placebo effect Harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm Rosenthal effect / Experimenter expectancy effect: phenomenon in which researcher’ hypotheses leave them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study Doubleblind: when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who’s in the experimental or control group Demand characteristics: cues that participants pick up from a study that allows them to generate guesses regarding the researchers hypotheses To combat this researchers sometimes conceal the nature of their study to make sure that participants cannot alter their responses to something that you may wish to hear Institutional Review Board: reviews all research carefully with an eye toward protecting participants against abuses Informed consent: informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate
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