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Chapter Three Textbook Notes

by: Alisa Notetaker

Chapter Three Textbook Notes PSY 1001

Marketplace > Temple University > Psychlogy > PSY 1001 > Chapter Three Textbook Notes
Alisa Notetaker
GPA 3.55

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Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding (3rd Edition) Scott O. Lilienfeld, Steven J Lynn, Laura L. Namy, Nancy J. Woolf
Elementary Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology Textbook
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
04/05/2016  Neurons  "The brains communicator"  nerve cells specialized for communication with each other  brain contains about 85 billion neurons  neurons have long extensions that help them respond to stimulation from other  neurons and communicate with them  Parts of the Neuron o The cell body  a.k.a the soma  central region of the neuron   manufactures new cell components   damage to this part of the neuron is fatal   provides continual renewal of cell components o Dendrites  receives signals   branchlike extensions of the neurons  Pass on "conversations" from neighboring neurons to the cell body o Axons and axon terminals  are the transmitter = sends signals  specialized for sending messages to other neurons  long­tail like extensions are very thin near the cell body   tiny spheres: synaptic vesicles [spherical sac containing  neurotransmitters]  travel the length of axon into the axon terminal ­­>  then releases neurotransmitters [ chemical messenger specialized for  communication from neuron to neuron ] o Synapse  once released from the synaptic vesicle neurotransmitters enter the  synapse  tiny fluid filled space between neurons through which neurotransmitter travel  synaptic cleft: gap into which neurotransmitters are released  from the axon terminal   gap surrounded by small patches of membrane on each side  one to the sending axon of the first neuron and the other on the receiving dendrite of the second neuron   Glial Cells  cell in nervous system that plays a role in the formation of myelin and the blood brain barrier, responds to injury , removes debris and enhances learning and memory   clear debirs acting as the brains cellular garbage disposals   Astrocytes: communicates closely with neurons, increases the reliability of their  transmission, control blood flow in the brain and plays a vital role in the development of the embryo o abundant in the blood­brain barrier = protective shield that insulates the brain  from infection by bacteria and other intruders   Oligodendrocyte: promotes new connections among nerve cells and releases  chemicals to aid in healing + produces an insulating wrapper around axons called  myelin sheath [ contains numerous gaps all the way along the axon = nodes = help  neurons conduct electricity more efficiently  ]  Neurons respond to neurotransmitter by generating electrical activity   scientist record this activity using electrodes   the membrane is at the resting potential  Action potential: electrical impulse that travels down the axon triggering the release of  neurotransmitter’s  language of the neurons = uses this to communicate  electrical charge reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse   Absolute refractory period: time interval during which another action potential is  impossible; limits the fastest rate at which a neuron can fire "takes time to reload"   receptor site :location that uniquely recognizes neurotransmitters   Electrical events transmit information WITHIN neurons but chemical events triggered by  neurotransmitter communicate AMONG neurons   after neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, they bind with receptor sites along the  dendrites of neighboring neurons.   reuptake: continually occurring process of synaptic vesicle reabsorbing the neurotransmitter   Neurotransmitters  Glutamate  o excites neurons = increasing the odds that they'll talk with the other neurons  o release of glutamate is associated with enhanced learning and memory o too elevated can lead to schizophrenia and other disorders   Gamma­aminobutyric acid o inhibits neurons = dampening neural activity  o most anti ­anxiety drugs bind to GABA receptors = suppresses overactive  brain areas linked to worry  o plays critical roles in learning, memory and sleep   Acetylcholine o plays role in arousal, selective attention, sleep and memory  o in Alzheimer’s disease, neurons containing acetylcholine are gradually  destroyed = severe memory loss  o neurons that connect directly to muscle cells also release acetylcholine =  triggers movement o e.g. how insecticides work is make breakdown of acetylcholine difficult =  insects engage in violent movements that kill them   Norepinephrine o brain arousal and other functions like mood, hunger and sleep  Dopamine o critical role in the rewarding experiences that occur when we seek out or  anticipate goals  o brains rich in dopamine become active when we hear a funny joke  o e.g. eating food releases dopamine   Serotonin  o mood and temperature regulation, aggression and sleep cycles   Anandamide o THC Marijuana  o plays role in eating, motivation, memory and sleep   Endorphins o plays role in pain reduction = release endorphins to reduce pain  Psychoactive: drugs that interact with neurotransmitter systems  o Scientist have developed specific medications to target the production and/or  the inhibition of certain neurotransmitters o opiates e.g. codeine and morphine = increase receptor site activity in specific  our emotional response to painful stimuli = mimics endorphins  o Xanax diminishes anxiety by stimulating GABA receptor sites o Prozac inhibit reuptake of certain neurotransmitter e.g. serotonin = by letting  neurotransmitters stay in synapse longer = heighten effect  think keep food in our mouth longer = makes it taste better  o some act to decrease activity e.g. medication to treat schizophrenia blocks  dopamine    Plasticity: ability of the nervous system to change   Development o Brain is most flexible during early development before nervous system has yet to be set in stone o brains don’t mature fully until late adolescence of early adulthood   1. Growth of dendrites and axons  2. Synaptogenesis:  formation of new synapses;  3. Pruning: consisting of the death of certain neurons and the  retraction of axons to remove connections that aren’t useful  4. Myelination: insulations of axons with the myelin sheath   Learning  Our brain changes as we learn by forming new synapses = increased  connections and communications among neurons   Injury  there is only limited generation in the human brain and spinal chord  but certain regions can take over the functions previously performed by other  regions e.g. blind peoples capacity to read braille  Neurogenesis: creation of new neurons in the adult brain  Central Nervous System [ CNS ]  Part of nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord that controls the mind and behavior   Meninges: three thin layers of membrane protecting the brain and spinal cord   Organization:  Cerrebrum:  Cerebral Cortex: o Largest part of forebrain o analyzes sensory information o Reasoning and language  o Consists of two cerebral hemispheres connected by Corpus  callosum  [large band of fibre]   Surrounding each hemisphere there are lobes:  o Frontal Lobe: performs executive functions   motor cortex  prefrontal cortex  broca's area o Parietal Lobe o Temporal Lobe o Occipital Lobe  Basal Ganglia  Limbic System  Thalamus: sensory information to cortex  Hypothalamus: endocrine and autonomic nervous system  Amygdala: regulates arousal and fear  Hippocampus: processes' memory   Cerebellum   Controls balance and coordinated movement   Brain Stem  Medulla: regulates breathing and heartbeats  Spinal Cord  Peripheral Nervous System [ PNS ]  nerves in the body that extend outside the central nervous system  Divided into two categories:  Somatic [ Voluntary ]   Autonomic "automatic" [non­voluntary ]  Sympathetic o "flight or fight"  Parasympathetic o rest or digestion   Endocrine System  Hormones  chemicals released into the bloodstream that influences particular organs and  glands   Pituitary Gland  under control of hypothalamus directs other glands of the body  Adrenal Gland  releases adrenaline during states of emotional arousal   Mapping the Brain  EEG ­ Electroencephalograph  measures electrical activity generated by the brain  patterns and sequences in EEG allow scientists to infer whether a person is  awake or asleep/ dreaming or not/ what regions of brain are active during  specific tasks  Doesn't require penetration ­­> records at the surface of the skull   BUT not good for determining wherein the brain the activity is occurring   CT and MRI ­ Computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging   allows us to visualize the brains structure   3D  reconstruction of multiple x­rays taken through a apart of the body   PET ­ positron emission tomography  measures changes in the brains activity in response to stimuli   requires injection of radioactive glucose­like molecules into patients   fMRI ­ Functional MRI   uses magnetic fieldsto visualize brain activity using changes in blood oxygen  level = INDIRECT indicator of neural activity  


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