Chapter Three Textbook Notes
Chapter Three Textbook Notes PSY 1001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
04/05/2016 Neurons "The brains communicator" nerve cells specialized for communication with each other brain contains about 85 billion neurons neurons have long extensions that help them respond to stimulation from other neurons and communicate with them Parts of the Neuron o The cell body a.k.a the soma central region of the neuron manufactures new cell components damage to this part of the neuron is fatal provides continual renewal of cell components o Dendrites receives signals branchlike extensions of the neurons Pass on "conversations" from neighboring neurons to the cell body o Axons and axon terminals are the transmitter = sends signals specialized for sending messages to other neurons longtail like extensions are very thin near the cell body tiny spheres: synaptic vesicles [spherical sac containing neurotransmitters] travel the length of axon into the axon terminal > then releases neurotransmitters [ chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron ] o Synapse once released from the synaptic vesicle neurotransmitters enter the synapse tiny fluid filled space between neurons through which neurotransmitter travel synaptic cleft: gap into which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal gap surrounded by small patches of membrane on each side one to the sending axon of the first neuron and the other on the receiving dendrite of the second neuron Glial Cells cell in nervous system that plays a role in the formation of myelin and the blood brain barrier, responds to injury , removes debris and enhances learning and memory clear debirs acting as the brains cellular garbage disposals Astrocytes: communicates closely with neurons, increases the reliability of their transmission, control blood flow in the brain and plays a vital role in the development of the embryo o abundant in the bloodbrain barrier = protective shield that insulates the brain from infection by bacteria and other intruders Oligodendrocyte: promotes new connections among nerve cells and releases chemicals to aid in healing + produces an insulating wrapper around axons called myelin sheath [ contains numerous gaps all the way along the axon = nodes = help neurons conduct electricity more efficiently ] Neurons respond to neurotransmitter by generating electrical activity scientist record this activity using electrodes the membrane is at the resting potential Action potential: electrical impulse that travels down the axon triggering the release of neurotransmitter’s language of the neurons = uses this to communicate electrical charge reaches the axon terminal, it triggers the release of neurotransmitters into the synapse Absolute refractory period: time interval during which another action potential is impossible; limits the fastest rate at which a neuron can fire "takes time to reload" receptor site :location that uniquely recognizes neurotransmitters Electrical events transmit information WITHIN neurons but chemical events triggered by neurotransmitter communicate AMONG neurons after neurotransmitters are released into the synapse, they bind with receptor sites along the dendrites of neighboring neurons. reuptake: continually occurring process of synaptic vesicle reabsorbing the neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters Glutamate o excites neurons = increasing the odds that they'll talk with the other neurons o release of glutamate is associated with enhanced learning and memory o too elevated can lead to schizophrenia and other disorders Gammaaminobutyric acid o inhibits neurons = dampening neural activity o most anti anxiety drugs bind to GABA receptors = suppresses overactive brain areas linked to worry o plays critical roles in learning, memory and sleep Acetylcholine o plays role in arousal, selective attention, sleep and memory o in Alzheimer’s disease, neurons containing acetylcholine are gradually destroyed = severe memory loss o neurons that connect directly to muscle cells also release acetylcholine = triggers movement o e.g. how insecticides work is make breakdown of acetylcholine difficult = insects engage in violent movements that kill them Norepinephrine o brain arousal and other functions like mood, hunger and sleep Dopamine o critical role in the rewarding experiences that occur when we seek out or anticipate goals o brains rich in dopamine become active when we hear a funny joke o e.g. eating food releases dopamine Serotonin o mood and temperature regulation, aggression and sleep cycles Anandamide o THC Marijuana o plays role in eating, motivation, memory and sleep Endorphins o plays role in pain reduction = release endorphins to reduce pain Psychoactive: drugs that interact with neurotransmitter systems o Scientist have developed specific medications to target the production and/or the inhibition of certain neurotransmitters o opiates e.g. codeine and morphine = increase receptor site activity in specific our emotional response to painful stimuli = mimics endorphins o Xanax diminishes anxiety by stimulating GABA receptor sites o Prozac inhibit reuptake of certain neurotransmitter e.g. serotonin = by letting neurotransmitters stay in synapse longer = heighten effect think keep food in our mouth longer = makes it taste better o some act to decrease activity e.g. medication to treat schizophrenia blocks dopamine Plasticity: ability of the nervous system to change Development o Brain is most flexible during early development before nervous system has yet to be set in stone o brains don’t mature fully until late adolescence of early adulthood 1. Growth of dendrites and axons 2. Synaptogenesis: formation of new synapses; 3. Pruning: consisting of the death of certain neurons and the retraction of axons to remove connections that aren’t useful 4. Myelination: insulations of axons with the myelin sheath Learning Our brain changes as we learn by forming new synapses = increased connections and communications among neurons Injury there is only limited generation in the human brain and spinal chord but certain regions can take over the functions previously performed by other regions e.g. blind peoples capacity to read braille Neurogenesis: creation of new neurons in the adult brain Central Nervous System [ CNS ] Part of nervous system containing the brain and spinal cord that controls the mind and behavior Meninges: three thin layers of membrane protecting the brain and spinal cord Organization: Cerrebrum: Cerebral Cortex: o Largest part of forebrain o analyzes sensory information o Reasoning and language o Consists of two cerebral hemispheres connected by Corpus callosum [large band of fibre] Surrounding each hemisphere there are lobes: o Frontal Lobe: performs executive functions motor cortex prefrontal cortex broca's area o Parietal Lobe o Temporal Lobe o Occipital Lobe Basal Ganglia Limbic System Thalamus: sensory information to cortex Hypothalamus: endocrine and autonomic nervous system Amygdala: regulates arousal and fear Hippocampus: processes' memory Cerebellum Controls balance and coordinated movement Brain Stem Medulla: regulates breathing and heartbeats Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System [ PNS ] nerves in the body that extend outside the central nervous system Divided into two categories: Somatic [ Voluntary ] Autonomic "automatic" [nonvoluntary ] Sympathetic o "flight or fight" Parasympathetic o rest or digestion Endocrine System Hormones chemicals released into the bloodstream that influences particular organs and glands Pituitary Gland under control of hypothalamus directs other glands of the body Adrenal Gland releases adrenaline during states of emotional arousal Mapping the Brain EEG Electroencephalograph measures electrical activity generated by the brain patterns and sequences in EEG allow scientists to infer whether a person is awake or asleep/ dreaming or not/ what regions of brain are active during specific tasks Doesn't require penetration > records at the surface of the skull BUT not good for determining wherein the brain the activity is occurring CT and MRI Computed tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging allows us to visualize the brains structure 3D reconstruction of multiple xrays taken through a apart of the body PET positron emission tomography measures changes in the brains activity in response to stimuli requires injection of radioactive glucoselike molecules into patients fMRI Functional MRI uses magnetic fieldsto visualize brain activity using changes in blood oxygen level = INDIRECT indicator of neural activity