Chapter Six Textbook Notes
Chapter Six Textbook Notes PSY 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Habituation: process of responding less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Ivan Pavlov discoverer of classical conditioning classical [pavlonian] conditioning o form of learning in which animals come to respond to previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits an automatic response Unconditioned stimulus [ UCS ] o stimulus that elicits automatic response Unconditioned response [ UCR ] o automatic response to a nonenutral stimulus that does not need to be learned Conditioned response [CR ] o response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that elicited by a neutral stimulus through conditioning Conditioned stimulus [ CS ] o initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association wiht an unconditioned stimulus o Real life example of classical conditioning Conditioned Stimulus: photo of rotten eggs Unconditioned Stimulus: taste or smell Operant Conditioning learning controlled by the consequences of the organisms behavior a.k.a instrumental conditioning Differences to Classical conditioning o Classical Conditioning vs. Operant Conditioning o Target behavior is: elicited automatically vs. Emitted voluntarily o Reward is: provided unconditionally vs. Contingent on behavior o Behavior depends primarily on: Autonomic nervous system vs. Skeletal muscles Law of effect: principle asserting that if a stimulus followed by a behavior results in a reward, the stimulus is more likely to give rise to the behavior in the future Skinner Box: small animal chamber constructed by Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviours to be recorded unsupervised Terminology o Positive Reinforcement Increases Target behavior Presenting a stimulus e.g. giving a gold star for homework completed = child studies more o Negative Reinforcement Increases Target behavior Removing a stimulus e.g. static on phone stops if you stand in a certain spot = you stay there o Positive Punishment Decreases Target behavior Presenting a stimulus e.g. scolding a pet for a certain action = pet stops doing bad action o Negative Punishment Decreases Target behavior Removing a stimulus e.g. taking away a toy from a child to stop bad behavior o Punishment can have disadvantages tells somebody/thing what NOT to do but not what TO do Can create anxiety = may interfere with future learning Can make bad behavior more secretive May provide model for aggressive behavior o Discriminative stimulus: stimulus that signals the presence of reinforcement e.g. you snap fingers at your dog and it comes to you expecting to be pet o Acquisition: learning phase during which a response is established o Extinction: gradual reduction and eventual elimination of a response after a stimulus is presented repeatedly o Spontaneous Recovery: sudden reemergence of an extinguished response after a delay o Stimulus Generalization: displaying a response to stimuli similar to bus not identical to the original stimulus o Stimulus Discrimination: displaying a less pronounces response to stimuli that differ from the original stimulus o Schedule of reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing a behavior o Continuous reinforcement: reinforcing a behavior every time it occurs, resulting in faster learning, but faster extinction o Partial reinforcement: only occasional reinforcement of a behavior, results in slower extinction Schedules of Reinforcement: o Fixed Ratio: provide reinforcement after a regular number of responses e.g. gets pellet after 15 correct lever presses on skinner box o Variable Ratio: provide reinforcement after a specific number of responses on average but the precise number of responses required during any given period varies randomly e.g. average ratio 10 gets feed after 6 pecks, 12 pecks, 1 peck , 21 pecks = the average ratio of these is 10 o Fixed Interval: reinforcement given if response is produced at least once in a specific amount of time o Variable Interval: reinforcement given after an average time interval, interval varies randomly e.g. average 8 minute interval first time then 1 minute interval then 20 minute interval then 7 minute = average interval time is 8 minutes o Shaping: conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target Learning Observational Learning: learning by watching others, we can watch others being reinforced for an action and take cues from them Mirror neuron: cell in the prefrontal cortex that becomes activated when an animal performs an action or observes it being performed Studies generally revealed that tailoring different methods to peoples learning styles doesnt result in enhanced learning INSTEAD most research shows that certain teaching approaches work best regardless of students learning styles