Chapter Seven Textbook Notes
Chapter Seven Textbook Notes PSY 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Memory: retention of information over time Paradox of memory: the same memory mechanisms that serve us well in most circumstances can sometimes cause us problems in others Memory illusion: false but subjectively compelling memory When we try to recall an event we actively reconstruct our memories using the cues and information available to us We don’t passively reproduce our memories Span: how much information each system can hold Duration: how longa period of time that system can hold the information Sensory Memory The first system is closely tied to the raw materials of our experiences Iconic Memory: Visual sensory memory Echoic Memory: auditory sensory memory Short Term Memory The second system that works actively with information it is given and then transforming it to more meaningful material before passing it on Works closer with ‘working memory’ Duration of memory is mostly likely no longer than 20 seconds Decay: fading of information from memory over time Interference: loss of information from memory because of competition from additional incoming information o Retroactive interference: occurs when learning something new hampers earlier learning = new interferes with old o Proactive interference: occurs when earlier learning gets in the way of new learning Capacity: The span of short term memory according to George miller is seven plus or minus two o Chunking: Organizing information into meaningful grouping = allows us to extend the span if short term memory Rehearsal: chunking increases span of memory but rehearsal increases duration o Repeating information to extend the duration of retention Elaborative rehearsal: Linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short term memory Depth of processing / levels of processing: the more deeply we process information the better we tend to remember it Long Term Memory Retain important information and store information Facts, experiences and skills that we have accumulated over our lifetime Permastore: type of long term memory that appears to be permanent Primary effect: the tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list especially well Recency effect: tendency to remember words a the end of the list especially well Serial position curve: graph depicting both primary and recency effects on peoples ability to recall items on a list Explicit memory: memories we recall intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness o Semantic memory: our knowledge or facts about the world o Episodic memory: recollection of events in our lives Implicit memory: memories we don’t deliberately remember or reflect on consciously o Procedural memory: memory for how to do things including motor skills and habits o Priming: our ability to identify a stimulus more easily or more quickly after we’ve encountered similar stimuli Process’ of memory Encoding o Process of getting information into our memory banks o To remember something we must first make sure that the format in one our memories can use o To encode something we must first attend to it Storage o Process of keeping information in memory o Schema: organized knowledge structure or mental model that wee stored in memory But they can also create things that ay not have happened = oversimplify Retrieval o Reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores o Retrieval cue: hunt that makes it easier for us to recall information o Recall: generating previously remembered information o Recognition: selecting previously remembered information from an array of options o Relearning: reacquiring knowledge that wed previously learned but largely forgotten over time Biology of Memory Retrograde amnesia: lose some memories of our past Anterograde amnesia: lost capacity to form new memories Korsakoffs syndrome o Result of chronic alcoholism o Causes both anterograde and retrograde amnesia Memories are not a construction o Cannot perfectly record an event Emotional events are remembered more easily and vividly Hippocamus: brain area involved in storing and creating memory Amygdala: Brain area involved in processing emotional information Flashbulb memory: vivid and very emotional and detailed but not always accurate o Less accurate over time but certainty about the memory stays the same Source monitoring confusion: lack of clarity about the origin of a memory Cryptomnesia: failure to recognize that our ideas were originated with someone else Suggestive memory technique: procedure that encourages patients to recall memories that may or may not have taken place Schemas and Scripts influence memory = can create false memories [ how it normally is but didn’t happen that way ] Misidentification: they choose the person that most closely resembles the culprit but not the actual “they all look the same to me” Racial errors
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