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Chapter Nine Textbook Notes

by: Alisa Notetaker

Chapter Nine Textbook Notes PSY 1001

Marketplace > Temple University > Psychlogy > PSY 1001 > Chapter Nine Textbook Notes
Alisa Notetaker
GPA 3.55

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Psychology: From Inquiry to Understanding (3rd Edition) Scott O. Lilienfeld, Steven J Lynn, Laura L. Namy, Nancy J. Woolf
Elementary Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology Textbook Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.


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Date Created: 04/05/16
 There is no real definition for intelligence   Simon and Binet developed the first intelligence test   Intelligence Test: diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability   fluid intelligence: capacity to learn new ways of solving problems   crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time   Chris Langan = VERY high IQ as a child but unremarkable occupational success  Spearman’s Theory   g ­ general intelligence: hypothetical factor that accounts for overall  differences in intellect among people   s ­ specific abilities: particular ability level in a narrow domain  Gardner's theory  Multiple intelligences = multiple frames of mind / different ways of thinking  about the world   each frame of mind is a different and fully independent intelligence in its own  right   basically individuals vary in skill ability in different things   Sternberg's Theory  Triarchic model: o Analytical intelligence: ability to reason logically  "book smarts"  o Practical intelligence: a.k.a tacit intelligence = solving real world  problems, especially those involving other people  "street smarts"  has also been called social intelligence = capacity to  understand others  o Creative intelligence: creativity  Intelligence is more localized to certain areas of the cortex than others  intelligence is related to efficiency or speed of information processing   Intelligence Testing  Metacognition: refers to knowledge of our own knowledge   How we calculate IQ o Stanford­Binet IQ test  originally developed for children   wide variety of tasks e.g. testing vocabulary and memory for  pictures, naming familiar objects, repeating sentences  o Intelligence Quotient ­IQ = Invented by Stern  = (mental age / chronological age) * 100  Mental Age: age corresponding to the average individuals  performance on an intelligence test   chronological age: age in actual years  Flaw: around age 16 performance on IQ doesn’t increase by  much = as people get older everyone’s IQ gets lower   SO deviation IQ is used = expression of a persons IQ relative  to his or her same aged peers  o Eugenics: movement in 20th century to improve a populations genetic  stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce, preventing  those with bad genes from reproducing  o WAIS ­ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale   most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting  of 15 subsets to assess different types of mental abilities  o Peoples cultures can affect peoples familiarity with test materials =  Culture ­fair IQ tests: abstract reasoning measure that doesn’t  depend on language and is often believed to be less influenced by  cultural factors than other IQ tests   Within a population, IQ scores are distributed in a bell curve ­ Founded by Gauss  Mental retardation: condition characterized prior to adulthood, IQ below 70 and  inability to engage in adequate daily functioning   more severe = less likely to run in families   Mensa = top 2% in IQ range  Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ  Lower  heritability of IQ at children at or below the poverty line  high levels on environmental deprivation  can largely swamp out effects of  genes   Malnutrition can also affect IQ negatively   Individuals with higher IQ enjoy class more than low IQ = continue to pursue  higher studies   Flynn effect: finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of  approximately three points per decade  Increased experience at taking tests  Increased complexity of modern world = forced to process far more  information far more quickly than before  Better nutrition  Changes at home and school = more time to kids or more intellectual  resources   Men are more variable in their overall IQ scores than women are   Within­group heritability: extent to which the variability of a trait within a group is  genetically influence  between­group heritability: extent to which differences in a trait between groups s  genetically influenced   Divergent thinking: capacity to generate many different solutions to a problem  Convergent thinking: capacity to generate the single best solution to a problem 


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