Chapter Nine Textbook Notes
Chapter Nine Textbook Notes PSY 1001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
There is no real definition for intelligence Simon and Binet developed the first intelligence test Intelligence Test: diagnostic tool designed to measure overall thinking ability fluid intelligence: capacity to learn new ways of solving problems crystallized intelligence: accumulated knowledge of the world acquired over time Chris Langan = VERY high IQ as a child but unremarkable occupational success Spearman’s Theory g general intelligence: hypothetical factor that accounts for overall differences in intellect among people s specific abilities: particular ability level in a narrow domain Gardner's theory Multiple intelligences = multiple frames of mind / different ways of thinking about the world each frame of mind is a different and fully independent intelligence in its own right basically individuals vary in skill ability in different things Sternberg's Theory Triarchic model: o Analytical intelligence: ability to reason logically "book smarts" o Practical intelligence: a.k.a tacit intelligence = solving real world problems, especially those involving other people "street smarts" has also been called social intelligence = capacity to understand others o Creative intelligence: creativity Intelligence is more localized to certain areas of the cortex than others intelligence is related to efficiency or speed of information processing Intelligence Testing Metacognition: refers to knowledge of our own knowledge How we calculate IQ o StanfordBinet IQ test originally developed for children wide variety of tasks e.g. testing vocabulary and memory for pictures, naming familiar objects, repeating sentences o Intelligence Quotient IQ = Invented by Stern = (mental age / chronological age) * 100 Mental Age: age corresponding to the average individuals performance on an intelligence test chronological age: age in actual years Flaw: around age 16 performance on IQ doesn’t increase by much = as people get older everyone’s IQ gets lower SO deviation IQ is used = expression of a persons IQ relative to his or her same aged peers o Eugenics: movement in 20th century to improve a populations genetic stock by encouraging those with good genes to reproduce, preventing those with bad genes from reproducing o WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale most widely used intelligence test for adults today, consisting of 15 subsets to assess different types of mental abilities o Peoples cultures can affect peoples familiarity with test materials = Culture fair IQ tests: abstract reasoning measure that doesn’t depend on language and is often believed to be less influenced by cultural factors than other IQ tests Within a population, IQ scores are distributed in a bell curve Founded by Gauss Mental retardation: condition characterized prior to adulthood, IQ below 70 and inability to engage in adequate daily functioning more severe = less likely to run in families Mensa = top 2% in IQ range Genetic and Environmental Influences on IQ Lower heritability of IQ at children at or below the poverty line high levels on environmental deprivation can largely swamp out effects of genes Malnutrition can also affect IQ negatively Individuals with higher IQ enjoy class more than low IQ = continue to pursue higher studies Flynn effect: finding that average IQ scores have been rising at a rate of approximately three points per decade Increased experience at taking tests Increased complexity of modern world = forced to process far more information far more quickly than before Better nutrition Changes at home and school = more time to kids or more intellectual resources Men are more variable in their overall IQ scores than women are Withingroup heritability: extent to which the variability of a trait within a group is genetically influence betweengroup heritability: extent to which differences in a trait between groups s genetically influenced Divergent thinking: capacity to generate many different solutions to a problem Convergent thinking: capacity to generate the single best solution to a problem
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