Chapter Ten Textbook Notes
Chapter Ten Textbook Notes PSY 1001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alisa Notetaker on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1001 at Temple University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Developmental Psychology: study of how behavior changes over the lifespan Post hoc fallacy: false assumption that because on event occurred before another event, it must have caused that event experiences influence development BUT development also influences experience crosssectional design: research design that examines people of different ages at a single point in time Cohort effect: effect observed in a sample of participants that results from individuals in the sample growing up at the same time Longitudinal design: research design that examines developments in the same group of people on multiple occasions over time gene expression: activation or deactivation of genes by environmental experiences throughout the development Prenatal [ prior to birth] human body acquires basic form and structure zygote is formed germinal stage: o zygote divides and forms blastocyst: ball of identical cells that have not yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part o around second week cells begin to differentiate, taking on different roles as the organs of the body begin to develop embryonic stage: o second to eight week o lims, facial feauures and major organs begin to take shape o many things can go wrong in fetal development Ninth week most major organs are established and heart begins to beat = fetal stage Brain development brain develops 18 days after fertilization brain continues to develop well into adolescence and early adulthood proliferation: neurons begin developing at an astronomical rate After fourth month migration of cells begin to occur = neurons start to soft themselves out and move into the specific structure of the brain e.g. hippocampus and cerebellum Environmental Influences Teratogens: environmental factors that can affect prenatal development negatively alcohol can result in fetal alcohol syndrome which can lead to disabilities e.g. learning, physical growth, facial malformations, behavioral disorders cigarettes smoking = most prevalent teratogens Babies are born with a large set of automatic motor behaviors = reflexes these are triggered by specific types of stimulation age at which motor behaviors occur vary but milestones occur in the same order generally e.g. crawling to walking to running Bodies don't reach full maturity until adolescence many hormonal changes occur pituitary gland stimulates physical growth and sex hormones are released into blood stream = growth and physical changes puberty: achievement of sexual maturation resulting in the potential to reproduce primary sex characteristics: a physical feature such as the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes secondary sex characteristics: a sex differentiating characteristic that doesn’t relate directly to reproduction, such as breast enlargement in women and deepening voices in men menarche: start of mensuration Cognitive development: how we acquire the ability to learn, think. communicate and remember over time Piaget o first person to represent a comprehensive account of cognitive development o showed that children’s understanding of the world differs fundamentally from adults o stage theorist = children’s development is marked by radical reorganization of thinking at specific transition points followed by periods during which their understanding of the world stabilizes o Assimilation and Accommodation Assimilation: process of absorbing new experiences into our current understanding Accommodation: process of altering beliefs about the world to make them more compatible with experience o Stages of development: Sensorimotor: stage characterized by focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally Birth 2 years No thought beyond immediate physical experiences Children lack Object permanence: understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view Preoperational: stage characterized by ability to construct mental representations of experiences but not yet perform operations on them 2 years 7 years can use symbols as language and drawings as representations e.g. banana as phone they are troubled with egocentrism: inability to see the world from others points of view + inability to perform mental operations Concrete operations: stage characterized by the ability to perform mental operations on physical events only 7 years 11 years o children are poor at performing mental operations in abstract / hypothetical situations, they need physical experience as an anchor to which they can tether their mental operations to Formal operations: stage characterized by the ability to perform hypothetical reasoning beyond the here and how most sophisticated type of thinking can understand logic concepts e.g. ifthen statements Vygotskys o interested in how social and cultural factors influence learning o scaffolding: Vygotskian learning mechanism in which parents provide initial assistance in children's learning but gradually removes structure as children become more competent o Zone of proximal development: phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction = learning new skill but aren’t yet successful at it o believed different children can acquire different skills and master tasks at different rates = no domaingeneral stages Change in adolescence o most brain maturation occurs prenatally and in the first few years on=f life o frontal lobes don’t mature fully until late adolescence or early adulthood o adolescents aren't capable to estimate risks o Older adults perform better on most vocabulary tests than younger because of crystallized intelligence Social Development in Infancy and Childhood o as early as four days after birth infants show a \marked preference for the mothers face o Stranger anxiety: a fear of strangers developing at 8 or 9 months of age o Temperament: basic emotional style that appears early in development and is large genetic in origin easy infants: about 40 % of babies are adaptable and relaxed difficult infants: about 10% are fussy and easily frustrated slowtowarmup infants: about 15% are disturbed by new stimuli at first but gradually adjust to them remaining 35% don’t fir neatly into any of these three categories o Imprinting geese follow the first object they see after hatching they imprint on whatever large moving object they see first imprinting only occurs during a critical period = window of time during which an event must occur o contact comfort: positive emotions afforded by touch Attachment Styles o Many Ainsworth developed the strange situation = laboratory procedure designed to evaluate attachment style by observing 1 year olds reactions to being separated from and then reunited with their primary caregivers o 1. Secure attachment about 60% US infants infant explores room but checks to make sure mum is watching and returns to mum when stranger enters upset when mum departs and greets her return with joy mum = secure base o 2. Insecureavoidant attachment about 1520% US infants Infant explore room independently without checking with mum indifferent to entry of stranger no distress at mums departure displays little reaction upon her return o 3. Insecureanxious attachment about 15 20 % US infants does not explore toys without mums assistance distress when stranger enters reacts to mums departure with panic + mixed reaction to her return o Disorganized attachment 510 % US infants added in later react to mum, stranger and toys with mixed reaction o Infants can form multiple attachments e.g. father, siblings and other caregivers o Strange situation is NOT reliable as infants can change their attachment styles Diana Baumrinds o Permissive: permissive parents tend to be lenient with their children, allowing them freedom inside and outside the household = use discipline sparingly if at all and often shower their children with affection o Authoritarian: authoritarian parents tend to be strict with other children, giving their children little opportunity for free play or exploration and punishing them when they don't respond appropriately to their demands, They show little affection toward their children o Authoritative: authoritative parents combine the best features of both permissive and authoritarian worlds = supportive of their children but set clear and firm limits Role of the father: fathers differ from mums o tend to share less mutual attention and less affection than mothers o spend less time with babies as mums do \fathers spend more time with physical play o children tend to choose fathers as playmates over mothers Emerging adulthood: period of life between ages of 18 25 when many aspects of emotional development, identity and personality become solidified Kohlberg and Morality o preconventional morality: marked by a focus on punishment and reward o conventional morality: marked with a focus on societal values post conventional morality: marked by a focus on internal moral principals
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