Intro Sociology chapter 6 notes
Intro Sociology chapter 6 notes Soc 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 1020 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lambert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 1020 in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Sociology 1020 Buckel Professor Lambert Chapter 6- Deviance and Social Control What is Deviance? Deviance- any violation of norms (not just crime) Determining what is deviant: not the act itself, but reactions to the act “Deviance” is a nonjudgmental/neutral term Relative Deviance- what is deviant to some is not deviant to others Stigma- characteristics that discredit people o Ex) Some main campus UC professors have stigma against students that come from UC Blue Ash o Ex) norm of appearance- birthmarks, burn victims, big ears Norms and Social Control Norms- How society expects you to act in certain situations; make behavior predictable by laying basic guidelines for how we should play our roles and interact with others o Without norms, there would be social chaos Social Control- group’s formal and informal means of enforcing norms through sanctions Competing Explanations of Deviance Sociobiologists- look for answers inside individuals (NOT SOCIOLOGISTS) o Genetic predispositions Ex) Men with extra Y-chromosome = criminals Ex) men with “squarish” muscle type = street crime Psychologists- focus on abnormalities within individuals o Personality Disorders Deviant personalities lead to deviant behavior No particular personality is associated with deviance Sociologists- look for answers outside individuals o Socialization, membership in subcultures, social class (Education, wealth, occupational prestige) Differential Association Theory Edwin Sutherland and Differential Association Theory o From different groups we associate with, we learn to deviate from or conform to society’s norms o “Excess of definitions” lead us to one side or the other Families o In-group- strong influence on social behavior o Ex) 50% of prisoners have a father, mother, sibling or spouse that has served time in prison Control Theory Two control systems work against our motivations to deviate o Inner Controls Based on strength of attachments, commitments, involvements, and beliefs Ex) morality, conscience, religious principles o Outer Controls Ex) family, friends, police Labeling Theory Labels, the significance of reputation, and how reputations help determine our path of deviance or conformity Rejecting labels and neutralizing deviance o Denial of responsibility, injury, or victim: condemnation of the condemners; loyalties Some groups embrace their labels o Ex) outlaw biker gangs Power of labels o Ex) “Saints” and “roughnecks”- the “saints” were treated better and with more promise and therefore they were more successful in life (college, etc) than the “roughnecks” Can Deviance be Functional? Emilie Durkheim and 3 functions of deviance: o 1. Clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms o 2. Promotes social unity o 3. Promotes social change Robert Merton and Strain Theory o How mainstream values produce Deviance: We lean to desire cultural goals (ex. Possessions, wealth, prestige) “The American Dream” o Most use institutional means to achieve them (education, hard work, etc.) o Those who lack access to institutional means experience strain and take deviant paths Innovators- Can’t use conformity/institutionalized means to reach goal make their own way Ritualism- Reject the cultural goal, but still wake up and go to work every day with a different, personal goal Retreatism- monks, nuns, etc.- remove themselves from cultural goals Rebellion- reject and replace goals and means to achieving them Illegitimate Opportunity Structures o Social class produces distinct styles of crime o Street crime o White- collar crime Individuals and corporations as criminals Ex) Sears, Macy’s, Bloomingdales, Citigroup o Changing gender roles and crime rates The Conflict Perspective The Criminal Justice System (CJS) o The police, courts, and prisons that deal with people accused of committing crimes CJS as an instrument of oppression o Conflict theorists regard power and social inequality as main characteristics of society o Argue that he notion the law treats everyone equally to bring justice is a cultural myth o Arrests, charges, and sentencing vary by race, gender, and social class Ex) the Death Penalty by geography, gender, race-ethnicity o Disproportionate Representation- if you make up a small % of the population, but are greatly represented in a certain area (ex. Prison Populations) Reaction to Deviance Street crime and Prisons o 2.3 million in jail and prison (1 in 135 citizens) o More prisoners than any other nations o African Americans disproportionately represented o Effects of race, sex, marital status, and education o 3 Strikes Law- 3 felonies = life in prison Decline in violent crime o Deterrence vs other factors Ex) higher employment, drop in drug use, heroin epidemic and crime Recidivism o Within 3 years, 62% of prisoners are rearrested and 52% are sent back to prison Legal Change o Ideas of what constitutes crime changes from one society to another, between groups within the same society, and over time (as opinions and power shift)
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