Intro Sociology Chappter 7
Intro Sociology Chappter 7 Soc 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 1020 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Lambert in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology 1020 in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
Intro Sociology Buckel Chapter 7- Global Stratification Social Stratification (SS) Social Stratification- a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their property, power, and prestige (3p’s)- refers to ranking large groups (not individuals) Ideology- Three Major Systems of SS Slavery o Causes: not usually based on racism- based on debt, crime, and war o Conditions: temporary vs lifelong, slave status not always inheritable, slaves status not always powerless and poor Caste o Birth determines lifelong status based on ascribed status and achieved status o US Racial Caste System- from the moment of birth, race marks everyone for lifea dn racial groups are hierarchal o Endogamy- marrying within your own group (Ex. Racial groups, social class) o Ritual pollution- the idea that marrying outside of your group is polluting the “purity” of your group Class o Placed at birth and primarily based on money/material possessions o Social Mobility- movement up or down the social class ladder Starting position at birth largely determines ones social mobility Social mobility also depends on whether the system is open or closed Gender and Superclass Gender- a basis for social stratification Global Superclass- growing interconnections among the world’s wealthiest people Functionalist View Social stratification is universal Davis and Moore’s Explanation o 1. Society must make sure positions are filled o 2. Some positions are more important than others o 3. More important positions were to be filled by people that are the most qualified o 4. To motivate qualified people, there must be different awards given Tumin’s Critique of Davis and Moore o How do we determine what positions are most important? o Stratification should be based on meritocracy but is it really? o If stratification is so functional, then it ought to benefit everyone Conflict Perspective Mosca’s Argument o Argued that stratification by power is inevitable o 1. For society to exist, it must be organized. This requires leadership to coordinate people’s actions o 2. To have leaders and followers, there must be inequalities of power o 3. Human nature is self-centered, therefore people in power will use position to reap greater rewards for themselves or their group Marx’s Argument o Stratification happens when small groups in power use society’s resources to benefit themselves and oppress others Current applications of conflict theory o Power relations among nations, national elites control workers and power shifts as capital moves between nations o Conflicts between racial-ethnic groups as they compete over education, housing, prestige o Conflicts between members of the same social class (unions) How do Elites Maintain Stratification? Soft Control vs Force o 1. Controlling People’s Ideas Ideology- beliefs that justify the way things are (ex. Divine right of kings) o 2. Controlling Information Controls on internet cafes and search engines (China) Labor camps (Korea) “in the interest of national security”- media domination (USA) o 3. Stifling Criticism o 4. Big Brother Technology Monitoring citizens with cameras, wiretaps, etc. Global Stratification: Three Worlds Nations are stratified by the 3P’s o The most industrialized nations In the US, running water, traffic lights, etc. are taken for granted and make life easier 31% land, 16% population o Industrializing nations 20% land, 16% population o Least industrialized nations 49% land, 68% population Modifying the Model o Oil-rich nations of the Middle East o Kuwait is an excellent example 3 Theories on How Nations Became Stratified Colonialism- countries that industrialized first got a head start and established economic colonies World System Theory- (Emmanuel Wallerstein) o Industrialization led to 4 groups of nations: 1. Core 2. Semiperiphery 3. Periphery 4. External o All countries are connected through the globalization of capitalism Culture of Poverty Theory o Argued by economist Galbraith (1979) o A way of life that perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next Living on the edge of starvation and can’t afford to make changes Religion teaches fatalism- god has decided your fate already and you can’t change it Evaluating these 3 Theories o Most sociologists prefer colonialism and world system theory o C.O.P. blames victim and ignores international political arrangements that benefit Most Industrialized nations 3 Ways Global Stratification is Maintained Neocolonialism o Replaced colonialism o Using international markets to control Least Industrialized nations Selling goods on credit creates a circle of debt o Relevance today: debt, low-cost oil, and human rights violations Multinational Corporations o Direct and indirect exploitation of Least Industrialized countries o Buying political stability by funneling money and weapons in return for low taxes and cheap labor Often referred to as subsidies or offsets instead of bribes o Unanticipated Consequences- some countries have begun to rival older capitalist countries (“Asian Tigers”- Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) Technology and Global Domination o Least Industrialized nations are unable to invest in technology o However, some countries such as India and China, have been able to export manufactured goods on a massive scale due to cheap labor Capital ($$) from exports is then used to adopt high technology to modernize infrastructure (transportation, communication, electrical, and banking systems) and advance their industry
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