World Hist II Week 10 notes
World Hist II Week 10 notes Hist 1004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1004 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. John McNay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World History II- HIST1004 in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
World Hist II Buckel Week 10 The Great War Nationalism was prominent- people didn’t want a nation to be a gov’t or king, but a ruling by the people Germany and Italy existed, but weren’t states, just nations of people Creation of Germany Many German-speaking people lived in Europe, but weren’t connected by a state Prussia- Northern Germany (“army with a state attached”) Bismarck- Chancellor of Prussia- cold, calculating, powerful politician (“iron chancellor”) o Puts together his cold politics and the romantic idea of having a German state o Decides to declare war on Austria and wins (1871) o Austria realizes they couldn’t take their land back, and agree to peace terms o Difference between Bismarck and Hitler Bismarck had a goal (to create a German state) and then stopped. Hitler wanted to take over Europe 2 bits of territory- Alsace & Lorraine- French thought the land was theirs, but many German speakers were there French military is no competition for Prussian military, and hands Prussia Alsace and Lorraine (1872) Creation of Italy Similar problem to Germany- nation of people, but not a state Garibaldi (1866)- from southern Italy- launches war against the rest of Italy th By 1871, there were two new European states that play a big role coming into the 20 century Tensions Empire- Germany was disappointed they missed the window for an empire Berlin Conference (1886-87)- meeting was held for how Africa was going to be divided (without going to war) America and Germany agreed to split Samoa, which Germany loses to the US again in WWI Britain claimed they had a larger navy than the next 2 put together 1890s- Germany is a huge industrial power- they were the world’s largest producers of steel (they could build a bigger navy than Britain but don’t) Naval Race Wilhelm Kaiser- emperor of Germany (Prussian background) o A general Spark & War The nature of the war put economies against each other- who has more weapons, soldiers, etc.- and a war to see which side lasted the longest In the Austrian Empire, a Bosnian nationalist group wanted to be their own nation Serbians were the most aggressive of the nationalist Bosnian nationalist group, Black Hand Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife go to Sarajevo as a parade-type visit The Black Hand posted 3 terrorists along the parade route o The first one didn’t shoot o The second one threw a grenade, and missed o The third assassin (Gabriel Princip) kills both Ferdinand and his wife when they reached a dead end Austrians were outraged, and blamed the Serbians instead of the Bosnians- they demand land and money- they threaten with a military attack to take the land Serbians had Russia as an ally- Russia threatens Austria with defeat Austria goes to Germany for help- the Kaiser supports the Austrians with lots of money Both countries prepare for war- Germany reminds Russia of the war treaty they had with Austria, and so Germany gets ready for war on Russia to help the Austrians The French start to get ready for war because they see the Germans getting ready- Britain is committed to France through their alliance, so they send some soldiers into France o Britain was worried that Belgium would no longer be neutral if Germany attacked France July Crisis- all of these countries were preparing for war in July In August, Germany goes through with the Schlieffen Plan- surprisingly, Belgium resists The French launched Plan 17, but made no progress. They recognize that the Germans wanted to surround them and take Paris French advance forward and then realize they’re right behind the Germans and attack at the Battle of Marne Both sides dig trenches from the ocean to the Alps- this goes on for 4 years 1916- war has gone on for two years o Verdun- ancient French city, very important historically during the battle of the Somme, Germans wanted to attack and take Verdun, making the French pour in to take the city back – millions of casualties for both sides President Wilson wanted to stay neutral and keep the US out of the battle In 1917, Russia become the Soviet Union The US agreed to trade with both sides, but we only really traded with the British and French because the British blocked trade with Germans Germans had poured in so much money for the war and was deeply in debt to the US The British were using passenger ships (such as the Lusitania) to smuggle weapons to Europe o About a thousand passengers, including some Americans, died when the ship was blown up by the Germans In 1917, Woodrow Wilson asks congress for a declaration of war, and gets it. The US was important in WWI for what it represented- the Europeans who had fought for years (wealth and supplies)- and not necessarily how it fought Ireland In 1916, they decide to attack British control of Ireland because they saw that Britain was involved in the war Background Shamrocks represented the Holy Trinity o The 4-leaf clover is often confused with the shamrock The Irish were resistant to the British and in the 1500s, Queen Elizabeth manages a way to sail through the different religious groups o She makes a deal with the radical Scottish Calvinist Protestants and says that they wouldn’t be arrested if they moved to northern Ireland, where people were Catholic After England’s civil war, the king makes his way to Ireland to take over In 1690, the Battle of the Boyne- catholic king gets allies in Ireland, but lose to the British 700 years of conflict A series of “risings” kept occurring in Ireland The Year of the French (1798)- (during the French revolution) the French decide to send an army to Ireland to have the Irish help them attack Britain, but there isn’t a very big turnout the British show up, the French surrender, and the Irish are slaughtered Penal Laws- laws to discriminate against the Irish Catholics o Catholics couldn’t own land, go to university, marry a protestant unless they convert, can’t be a doctor, lawyer, etc. Daniel O’Connell- starts the big campaign for the emancipation of the Irish “Great Emancipator” Once the Irish can become lawyers, they could use the British law against the British Irish agreed to stay a part of Britain, but to rule themselves o Charles Stewart Parnell- (“uncrowned king of Ireland”)- gets into a romantic relationship with a married woman- priests turn on him and condemn him for this relationship and he loses his power The Great War The Easter Rising- group called Sinn Fein was one of the leaders of the rising o The Irish people didn’t want much trouble and the rebellion was crushed within a few days o The Irish people scorned the Sinn Fein, thinking they were foolish, but not bad people o The British decide to execute 13 of the members that they captured (ranging in age from 18-73) Violence breaks out all over Ireland Partition of Northern Ireland WWI was almost over, but Britain said when it did end, they’d bring war to Ireland and take over The Irish wanted to make a deal with the British to be a free state As Ireland is split, the Irish fight among themselves between people who wanted the treaty and those who didn’t First president of free Ireland was from the US (de Valera), born to an Irish mother The Irish became a republic, as it is known today The Irish Republican Army, from the early 70s to 1996, is continually fighting (between Catholics and Protestants) Clinton and Intervention Clinton tried hard in his presidency to make peace in the middle east, which was a “new issue” to people, compared to the hundreds of years that the Irish were fighting The US had always said they were neutral to the conflict in Northern Ireland Clinton has put the British and Irish on equal terms and they have to negotiate fairly