World Hist II- Week 11 Notes
World Hist II- Week 11 Notes Hist 1004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by RachelB on Tuesday April 5, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1004 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. John McNay in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see World History II- HIST1004 in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/05/16
World Hist II Buckel Week 11 (Thursday) 1917 US gets drawn into war o Woodrow Wilson was certain that all the carnage being generated in WWI was preparation for another war o Although the US declares war in 1917, there is no army in Europe for a year o Traditionally, once war was over, the army demobilized, unlike today, where we always have a force trained and waiting There were 3 black regiments in the segregated US army- the French take in these troops, knowing they can fight as well as the white troops. o 2 of the 3 regiments won a French cross of war (the highest honor the French can bestow on a unit) 1918 By the summer of 1918, the US is prepared to go into battle In early summer, the Germans launched the Hindenburg Offensive, their last offensive move across western Europe The Germans drove the British and French back 50 miles (back then, progress was measured in yards, so this was a large distance) o It grinds to a halt as the Germans run out of men and ammunition o The British and French hold their place while they wait for the US Meuse-Argonne Offensive (9-26-18)- largest American overseas military unit movement o The Germans are driven back and defeated for the first time since 1914 (Shleifflan Plan) Germany puts in a new gov’t to make peace with other countries War ends November 11 at 11am in 1918 (now known as Veteran’s Day) Harry Truman was a captain in one of the units of WWI, and eventually becomes president Versailles “the peace that ended peace” Woodrow Wilson wanted WWI to be a “war to end all wars”- a war to make the world safe for Democracy Wilson proposes the peace plan “14 Points” o There should be no more secret treaties between countries so everyone knows what’s being promised o Self-determination of peoples- hardcore nationalism fueled the war, so he wanted to find a way for people to express nationalism without causing conflict Problem: everyone around the world thinks he’s talking about them and demand hearings The British and French were angered, thinking he wanted them to give up their empires o Created a League of Nations (LON) for when there’s a problem between countries, so that they can work it out The Germans were blamed for the war, and were going to pay for it not only with money, but with land (they never were able to pay it off) The US doesn’t accept any reparations because they didn’t blame only the Germans for WWI Wilson had to compromise on all of his 14 points except for the League of Nations Wilson goes for negotiations and brings a bunch of democrats (he was democrat) and when he comes home with a treaty, the republicans thought it was only a democratic treaty Wilson wanted the US to be a part of the LON, but the senate objects, and so Wilson takes the train across the country to appeal to the American people With high blood pressure and lots of stress, Wilson has a stroke while speaking in Colorado. He has another stroke on the train home, leaving him incapacitated People would come to see the president, and his wife, Edith, helped out significantly The US doesn’t join the LON, but the US was the only country who really wanted it Going into WWII, people wanted the LON to have used more power to stop the events from unfolding, and blamed them for the war o If the US had been a part of LON, more would have been done to prevent international issues Legacy of WWI The end of empires: German, Russian, Ottoman The Ottoman Empire gets carved up by British& French Yugoslavia was a new nation created in hopes of peace, but is taken over by a communist dictator Austrian Empire was split up, partially to Yugoslavia, and created new countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia “new kid on the block” USA o We had a heavy death toll in a short period of time (126,000 within a year) o The US profits enormously from WWI the 1920’s saw the first multinational corporations that originated in the US “Roaring 20’s” (the rest of the world still struggled) o Independent Internationalism- we are engaged in internationalism, but do independently (many people claimed the US was isolating itself) o The British pushed for a “mutual defense” system, but the US didn’t want to entangle commitments o Instead, the world pushes to outlaw war US secretary of state, Kellogg, agreed to this Kellogg-Briande Pact- war was outlawed o Irony- most countries who signed this participated in WWII US, Japan, Britain, France, and Italy agreed to limit the size of their navies The US didn’t have huge budget deficits during this time because they weren’t using the money on military potential and power Coming of War Legacy of Great War Germany o The Treaty of Versailles never included Germany in its outcome o You can’t have a lasting peace with someone if you don’t talk to them about the terms of the peace o “war guilt clause”- not blatantly said in the treaty (that they believed Germany was the sole perpetrator) o Germany not only had to pay reparations for the war, but were also cut out of the world’s trading networks, so they couldn’t profit from anything and pay off their increasing debt o The US decides to try and help Germany get back on its feet with the Dawes Plan- loaning money (low interest) to the Germans o When the American economy collapses, the Dawes Plan fails as well because economies were paying each other, making the Great Depression global Asia Japan o Became a global power by this point, as they defeated China and Russia in battle o Had no natural resources for war, and had to rely on nuclear power The best resources were owned by the Europeans, upsetting Japan o They begin to try and find ways around this situation the weak link was China at this point (politically + civil war going on) and so they think they have a right to intervene in China o In 1931, the Japanese invade Manchuria in China China let Japan build a railroad in Manchuria the Japanese think they have some sort of ownership now rename Manchuria “Manchukuo” (leader: Pu Yi) o WWII really started in Manchuria, on a small scale, 10 years before Pearl Harbor Hitler Youth o Born in Austria, fought in WWI o Was recovering from a gas attack in the hospital when he heard of the armistice and became very bitter o Like many Germans, he didn’t believe they really lost the war because the war wasn’t fought in Germany, and he targeted the bitterness and anger of the German people o At the first meeting he spoke in, he realizes he has a public speaking talent and hones his skills for later speeches Nazi Ideology o They like uniforms and military-style marches o Brownshirts- used bullying and military Rallied in Munich, had a bunch of beer, and decided to overthrow the gov’t The police meet them there, and gunfire is exchanged Hitler is hit, and surrenders for medical care he serves several months in prison and writes Mein Kompf o The German gov’t didn’t have much control over what was happening o Germany concludes they lost WWI because of the Jews (not true) and believed it to be unjust