Week 3 Hunters and Gatherers
Week 3 Hunters and Gatherers ANTH 330
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amrita Gupta on Sunday February 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 330 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Lawrence Sugiyama in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Hunters & Gatherers in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/01/15
12115 Humans are biological organisms must look at humans in light of evolution Darwin s Reasoning 1 All species have such high potential fertility that population would increase exponentially 2 Except for minor annual and rare major uctuations population size is normally stable 3 Natural resources are limited In a stable environment they remain constant Inference I More individuals are produced than can be supported by available resources leading to competition 4 No two individuals are exactly the same populations have great variability 5 Much of this variation is heritable Inference 2 Survival is not random and depends on the heritable constitution genetics of individuals This differential survival is natural selection Inference 3 Over generations natural selection leads to general change in a population 0 The goal of life is not survival it is reproduction 0 Hostile forces that impact a population size disease climate competition predators food shortages 0 Darwin was unaware of particulate unites of inheritance genes 0 Three geneticists discovered Mendel s laws in 1900 Attention then turned to animal genetics Gene basic unit of inheritance a sequence of locations on DNA that tends to get passed on Allele one variant of a gene within a population alternate versions of amino acid sequences at these locations Genotype combination of genes in an individual Phenotype manifest animal as it is phenotype genotype environment how does the genotype physically manifest itself Population an interbreeding group of individuals gene ow Evolution a change in the allele frequencies within a population over time 1 mutation change in base DNA sequence 2 migration movement of genes from one population to another 3 genetic drift random factors not associated with individuals genetic makeup that ultimately affect its reproduction 4 recombination in sexually reproducing organisms genetic info is shuf ed every generation This does not produce a change in allele frequencies over time per se evolution but it is a source of variation upon which evolutionary processes may act 5 natural selection acts on variation given genetic variation some of these may in uence aspects of the developmental design of the organism such that it has an effect on their relative reproductive success 0 Of these natural selection is the only one that reliably produces complexly organized functional design that is the hallmark of an adaptation Natural selection the differential reproductive success of individuals within a population that occurs because of the developmental effects of the genetic differences between them Adaptation a trait that spreads as a result of natural selection Fitness a measure of relative reproductive success of individuals 0 Genes are replicators whereas individuals are vehicles for gene replication 0 Without exact replication traits would not be heritable Replicator any thing of which exact copies can be made gene Vehicle entities that containfacilitate replicators animal 0 Genes that tend to have effects on the individuals who carry them will tend to spread through the population and may eventually replace genes that tend to have effects resulting in lower reproductive success 0 Natural selection is the differential reproduction of genes or the genetic units necessary to build traits of an organism caused by the effects of those genes on the relative reproductive success of their bearers Adaptationist approach in biology 0 Seeks to recognize those features of an organism that constitute adaptations 0 Identifying adaptations carves the phenotype at its natural functional joints 0 To claim that a trait is an adaptation is to make a claim 0 About phenotypic design 0 That there are genes in the species gene pool specifically for the trait 0 About the past 0 Is not to claim that the environment is unimportant in the ontogeny development within the lifespan of the trait Behavior is subject to two tents of causal analysis proximate and ultimate o Proximate direct mechanisms that bring something about structural explanations about organisms as behaving machines 0 Ultimate focuses on adaptive significance